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TREATISE 



PROPERTIES AND MEDICAL APPLICATION 



VAPOUR BATH, 



ITS DIFFERENT VARIETIES AND THEIR 
EFFECTS, 

IN VARIOUS SPECIES OF DISEASED ACTION. 



■ 7Z^ 

By J. GIBNEY, M.D. 

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH ; 

RESIDENT PHYSICIAN AT BRIGHTON, AND SENIOR PHYSICIAN TO 
THE SUSSEX COUNTY HOSPITAL, AND GENERAL SEA- 
BATHING INFIRMARY. 



SECOND EDITION. 



Lonliott t 



PRINTED FOR THOMAS AND GEORGE UNDERWOOD, 

32, FLEET -STREET ; 

AND SOLD BY THE BOOKSELLERS AT BRIGHTON, 



1829. 

J 




J.J.-^' 6/ 




^(.JV^J^^tof 



LONDON : 
PRINTED BT W. NEWTON, CANNON-ROW, 
WE3TMINSXE«« 



TO 
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

MARQUIS CONYNGHAM. 



My Lord, 

Presuming upon the distinguished 
kindness I have experienced from your 
Lordship, the following Treatise, which 
was dedicated to j^our Lordship on its first 
publication, is again^ in the Second Edition, 
submitted to your notice, under impressions 
and sentiments of deep-felt gratitude, as 
a small but sincere tribute of esteem and 
respect, from 

Your Lordship's 

Most obedient humble servant, 

J. GIBNEY. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



Very soon after printing the First Edition of this Work, 
its publication was unfortunately prevented by an occurrence 
of a most unexpected description^ and hence much dis- 
appointment was occasioned at its not appearing for many 
months after it came from the press. 

It is now offered to the Public in a more enlarged 
Edition, and under more favourable circumstances. 



*#* See Appendix. 



Brighton, No. 2(5, Steyne, 
January, 1829. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Introduclion — Vapour-Bath less used formerly — Not chemi- 
cally or scientifically understood— Its Use in Russia, Sweden, 
and Egypt— Practice in Cold Climates — Use amongst un- 
cultivated Nations— Coxe's Description of Russian Baths— 
Savary's Account of Egyptian Baths - - p. 1 



CHAPTER II. 

Process of Massing — Observations on Friction — Friction 
and Percussion — Mexican Bath — Temazcalli — Dr. Pocock 
on Turkish Baths — Franklin on Baths of Persia — Persian 
Baths — Baths among the Moors and Spaniards — Dry Heat 
preceding Vapour — Baths of Abano — Commentary on 
Abano— Appearance in Disease— Practice similar to Cata- 
plasms — Sudatorium — Great Repute — Carlsbad — Heat 
excessive— Bathe as well as drink — Perspiration follows — 
Reiteration also necessary at Abano — Sudatories in St. Ger- 
mano — those of Baia intensely hot— their good Eflfects by 
Test of Time— Nero's Palace— Baths of Nero - - 14 



VI CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

Metaline Balhs — Heated Air — Steam — Steam, comparative 
Weight of— Latent and Sensible Heat — Elasticity of Vapour 
— Air-Pump Vapour-Bath— Atmospherical Pressure — Den- 
sity and Elasticity— Air's Pressure, relative to Disease- 
Density of Atmosphere - - p. 30 



CHAPTER IV. 

Properties of Air and Steam— Mr. Leslie's Experiments— Air, 
its Condensation and Expansion — Application of Vapour^ — 
Sympathy of Exiialing Surfaces — Sudden Transition to High 
Temperature — Primary Effect of Vapour — Condensation of 
Vapour — Orifices of the Scarf Skin — Quantity of Perspirable 
Matter — Cuticular Absorption — Ingenhouz's and Cruik- 
shank's Experiments — Secretion by Urine and Perspiration 
— Sequin and Lavoisier's Experiments — Organic Sympathy 
— Lord Bacon — Excessive Temperature — Experiments of 
Sir J. Banks, Sir C. Blagden, and Dr. Fordyce - - 44 



CHAPTER V. 

Division of Vapour Balhs — Medicated Vapour — ^Aromatic and 
Sulphur Vapour — Gout, Rheumatism, Paralysis, and Scro- 
fula — Mon. Rapon, Douche De Vapour — Mercurial Fumi- 
gation — Balnea Laconica — Medicated Vapour — Dr. De- 
Carro — Medicated Vapour-Baths — Vapour from Tar— • 
Nitro-Muriatic Bath — Description of Vapour-Bath — Slipper 
Vapour-Bath - - - - 62 



CONTENTS. Vn 



CHAPTER VI. 



Doctor Gowei's Tracts — Spirit Lamp Vapoiir-Batli — Warm 
Bath heated from Vapour — Baths on extensive Scale — 
Shampooing - - - p. 77 



CHAPTER VII. 

Friction, by Mr. Pugh — Friction — Percussion — Pulsator, Dr. 
Gower — Simple Means from Improvement in Vapour-Bath 
—Application of Vapour-Bath — Accession of Disease — 
General Application of Vapour-Bath — Productive of Lon- 
gevity — Applicable to great Variety of Disease - - 87 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Diseases to which Vapour-Bath is applicable — Caution necessary 
in its Use — Commence with Vapour of Low Temperature — 
General Precautions — Time for entering the Vapour-Bath — 
General Instructions — Necessary Caution — Application in 
Gout— Salutary Effects in Gout — Gout — Rheumatism — 
Lumbago— Sciatica— Dry Pumping — Alternation of Baths 
— Rheumatism . . - - 100 



CHAPTER IX. 

Paralytic Affections — Paralysis — Rheumatism — Painter's Cho- 
lie — Hydropic Diseases — Bleeding in Dropsy — Haemorr- 
hage, Dr. Parry — Hydropic Complaints — Diseased Kidneys 
and Bladder — Scrofula — Mesenteric Scrofula — Pulmonic 
Affections — Hip Joint — Glandular Swellings— White Swel- 
lings — In Luxations and Injuries — Cutaneous Diseases — 
Visceral Diseases - ^ - - 117 



VIM CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER X. 

Suspended Animation — Insanity — Mercurial Disease — Ferer 
— Intermittent, Scarlet, and Hectic Fever - p. 135 



CHAPTER XI. 

Conclusion - - - - - 143 



ENGRAVINGS. 



I. Section of the Frame of a Vapour-Bath 2'o face Title 

II. Spirit Lamp Vapour-Bath - - p. 80 

III. The Pulsator - - - p. 93 



PREFACE. 



An enquiry respecting the use and influ- 
ence of different baths, in disease, having 
occupied my attention for some years 
past, I am induced to pubHsh the result 
of my experience upon the nature and 
effects of the Vapour-Bath, as a conti- 
nuation of my Observations upon Baths 
in general, which have been for some 
considerable time before the Public. 

At the period of their publication, 
want of experience prevented me from 
entering upon the present part of the 



X PREFACE. 

subject, with so mucli satisfactory infor- 
mation as has been since afforded me by 
a residence at Brighton, during many 
years, and at a time when the use of the 
Vapour-bath has considerably increased 
ill general estimation. 

A daily inspection of its powers and 
its influence upon the variety of diseases 
that present themselves in so populous a 
sea-bathing place, has confirmed me in 
the conviction of the advantages arising 
from it; and, in most instances, of its su- 
periority over the usual mode of bathing. 
From this experience, I am of opinion, 
it should be considered, in most circum- 
stances, as a much more poxQerful agent 
than the common fluid-bath, under any 
degree of heat ; and hence, (to obviate 



PREFACE. XI 

the abuses which but too commonly arise 
from temerity or inexperience,) more 
prudence and circumspection will be 
required in its administration ; and, like 
all other means of an active charac- 
ter, used for the removal of disease, re- 
specting which there may be doubt or 
a difficulty, whatever facts we possess 
should be made as generally known as 
possible. 

With this design principally in view, 
the following compilation of facts and 
observations has been selected and ar- 
ranged, with some degree of reflection 
upon the subject, and with solicitude to 
render it better understood than it has 
yet been by practitioners in this country. 
Many of these particular observations 



Xll PREFACE. 

and circumstances, valuable in them- 
selves, have been made public, in works 
of a more enlarged character; but so par- 
tially interspersed with other matter, and 
so little in detail, as to afford a very 
imperfect and inadequate view of a prac- 
tice which should be looked upon as of 
very general consideration and utility, 
requiring a certain degree of systematic 
arrangement, with reference to its physi- 
cal and chemical properties. 

In order that these particular proper- 
ties and the nature of vapour may be 
more clear and distinctly understood, the 
practical result of whatever information 
I could derive from others, as well as 
from my own personal experience, has 
been brought to bear upon the subject. 



PREFACE. Xlll 

with as little obscurity as was within m}^ 
power. 

In this, at first view, I conceived there 
would have been less difficulty than what 
I subsequently found to be the case ; 
partly arising from causes just men- 
tioned, and in a g-reater measure from 
the number of essays written specifically 
upon the subject under consideration, 
being- very few. 

However, it may be justly observed, 
that the nature and qualities of vapour 
are more deserving of explanation than, 
as far as I am instructed, has hitherto 
been bestowed upon it, as a curative 
means in disease, and requiring more 
circumspection than any other form of 
bath ; for, with every possible advantage 



XIV PREFACE. 

which practical information affords, aris- 
ing from the most attentive observation 
upon its general use and particular influ- 
ence, yet such are the peculiarities of 
habit and constitution, from a great 
variety of causes, particularly those that 
present themselves as the consequences 
of the luxury and refinement of the age 
in which we live, independent of casual- 
ties from other sources, that difficulties 
frequently occur which render its appli- 
cation often perplexing and dangerous. 

Abuses of the most pernicious kind 
arose from the too frequent and constant 
use of heated air amongst the Romans, 
either to diminish the inconvenience or 
distress of an over-loaded stomach, or to 
promote an appetite for food in an unne- 



PREFACE. XV 

cessary degree: — Pliny inveighed with 
earnestness against the medical practi- 
tioners of the day, who could suffer so 
unjustifiable a practice for the selfish and 
despicable gratification of the appetite, 
so often exercised by those whose mo- 
ments were devoted to gross sensuality 
and the luxuries of the table ; and Sene- 
ca, beholding this luxurious practice in- 
crease considerably during his time, is 
still more indignant against the abuses 
arising from too frequent an exposure 
to heated air, which enervates and exv 
hausts the strength of the body ; — but 
the importance of baths was of such 
moment amongst these people, and 
wherever their conquests extended, that 
for many centuries they were an object 
of the constant care and attention of 



XVI PREFACE, 

the government : yetj from their general 
and extensive use, abuses were inevita- 
ble, so as to injure the character of a 
practice at once salubrious and grateful, 
and often productive of health and 
vigour. 

It may be truly remarked, that where 
any remedy of such import is adminis- 
tered indiscriminately and incautiously, 
it becomes more than difficult to bring 
it under any degree of regularity ; but 
when this is in part effected, a promise 
of further progress soon follows, and 
we become more and more satisfied at 
each step that leads us to steady prin- 
ciples and just conclusions. 

JOHN gibney; 



Brighton, No. 26, Steyne, 
January, 1829j, 



ON 

VAPOUR BATH, 

FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, 

Sj-c. Sfc. 



CHAPTER I. 



Introduclion — Vapour Bath less used formerly — Not chemt- 
cally or scientifically understood — Its Use in Russia, Sweden, 
and Egypt — Practice in Cold Climates — Use amongst un- 
cultivated Nations— Coxe's Description of Russian Baths — 
— Savary's Account of Egyptian Baths. 

To trace the causes that have hitherto 
operated against the practice of bathing in 
general,, under its different forms and modi- 
fications, and to ascertain why the use of the 
Vapour Bath has not been more known 



% ON VAPOUR BATH, 

among us, would be an enquiry attended 
with less utility than difficulty. 

The prevailing use of baths^ as a means 
of relief in disease, or as a salutary or luxu- 
rious custom, existed in former times much 
less among us as a people than it does at 
present ; and this more particularly as to the 
knowledge and application of the steam or 
Vapour-bath^ which, until of late years, was 
more known as a remedy than scientifically 
or chemically understood ; but, as the proofs 
of its efficacy, both here and upon the Con- 
tinent, are becoming more immerous, the 
natural result must be, that the practice 
will extend in a ratio equal to its utility. 

Among different nations, the medical ap- 
plication of Vapour varies according to habit 
and casual circumstances ; — in many places, 
the steam or Vapour being naturally pro- 
duced, while in others, to fulfil every salu- 
tary purpose, this of necessity must be 
effected by artificial means. 

The administration of Vapour, in disease. 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING^ ETC. iJ 

may be traced to the days of Hippocrates ; 
and was efficaciously used by Celsus^ Galen, 
and many of the Arabian Physici^ins ; but^ 
to the inhabitants of the East, to the Egyp- 
tianS;, the Greeks, and to the Romans, its 
active application, both topically and gene- 
rally, has been extensively known, but more 
known than understood, from the most early 
records up to the present day. 

In the burning: regions of the East, and 
in the frozen and extended countries of 
Russia, Finland, Sweden, &c, the practice 
has become as general as is the estimation 
in which it is universally held; probably 
arising from the existence of sensations and 
disease peculiar to regions remarkable for 
the extremes of heat and cold ; added to 
this, the constant habit of a people occupy- 
ing those districts is such, that existence 
becomes painful without the comfort of the 
bath under one form or another ; indeed, to 
such a degree, that a strict preclusion from 
its use is exercised and considered as a 
b2 



4 ON YAPOUR BATtt^ 

punishment of considerable seventy . Should 
any instance of this nature occur among the 
Egyptian women^ from an interdiction by 
the husband or otherwise^ it would be con- 
sidered of so cruel a nature, as to cause 
general disapprobation ; for they not only 
enjoy the greatest delight from the salutary 
luxury of the bath, but when they assemble 
at the adjoining apartments, converse with 
the greatest animation upon subjects of 
every agreeable description. 

In the colder districts, apartments, heated 
to a very high temperature, are used as 
baths, and after the necessary time of expo- 
sure, the bathers are habituated to rush into 
cold and frosty air; nay, numbers, from a 
high degree of heated medium, plunge into 
cold water contained in a pond convenient 
to the bath, or in winter roll themselves in 
snow, which, from force of habit, is found 
productive of no bad consequence, even 
though the change from heat to cold, and 
from cold to heat, is often reiterated ; on 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 5 

the contrary^ the removal of disease is fre- 
quently known to succeed ; and, it is worthy 
of remark, that this custom is found among 
most uncultivated nations, from the expe- 
rience of its utility. 

In these countries, and in Lapland, the 
same mode of bathing, as well as in pro- 
ducing Vapour, maintains, as in Japan ; — 
from heated flints the apartment is raised to 
a high temperature, and by this means, in 
Iceland, their dry and sweating rooms are 
raised as high as 115° of Fahrenheit. Boys 
and girls, with their parents, indiscrimi- 
nately enter, and to open the pores, and 
promote a more free perspiration, the 
surface of the body is gently struck with 
twigs, formed sometimes from one shrub, 
sometimes from another ; this produces both 
a pleasing and useful effect, and is suc- 
ceeded by feelings of grateful relaxation 
and refreshment. 

In his travels in Russia, Cox describes the 
Russian bath as ''containing one room 



b ' ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

provided with ranges of broad benches, 
placed like steps one above the other, almost 
to the height of the ceiling. — Within were 
about twenty persons undressed ; some were 
lying upon benches, some were sitting, 
others standing; some were washing their 
bodies with soap, others rubbing themselves 
with small branches of oak-leaves tied toge- 
ther like a rod ; some were pouring hot water 
upon their heads, others cold water ; a few, 
almost exhausted by the heat, were standing 
in the open air, or repeatedly plunging into 
the Volkof." 

In another account, he says, "Having 
taken off my clothes, I laid myself down 
upon the highest bench, while the bathing- 
woman was preparing tubs of hot and cold 
water, and continued to increase the vapour 
by pouring water upon heated stones. Hav- 
ing dipped a bunch of twigs into the hot 
water, she repeatedly sprinkled and then 
rubbed with it my whole body. In about 
haif-an-hour I removed to the lower bench. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. ? 

which I ioiiiid much cooler; when the 
bathing-woman lathered me from head to 
foot with soap, scrubbed me with flannel 
for the space of ten minutes, and throwing* 
several buckets of warm water over me, till 
the soap was entirely washed off, she finally 
dried me with napkins. 

"As 1 put on my cloaths in a room with- 
out a fire, I had an opportunity of remark- 
ing that the cold air had little effect on 
my body, though in so heated a state ; for, 
while I was dressing, I felt a glow of 
warmth, which continued during the whole 
night. This circumstance convinced me, 
that when the natives rush from the Vapour- 
baths into the river, or even roll in the 
snow, their sensations are in no respect dis- 
agreeable, nor the effect in any degree un- 
wholesome." 

To this account may be added that 
given by Savary, in his letters respecting 
Egypt, where, as beautifully described by 
him, the manner of using the Vapour-bath 



8 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

is much more elegant and convenient^, 
and found to be in very constant and 
general use. 

" The first apartment in going- to the 
bath is a large hall, which rises in the 
form of a rotunda, and is open at the top, 
to give a free circulation to the air. A spa- 
cious estrade, or raised floor, covered with a 
carpet, and divided into compartments, goes 
round it, on which the bather leaves his 
clothes. 

'' In the middle of the building is a jet 
d'eau, which spouts from a bason, and 
agreeably entertains the eye. When you 
are undressed, you tie a napkin round your 
loins, take a pair of sandals, and enter into 
a narrow passage, where yoii begin to be 
sensible of the heat. The door shuts to, 
and at twenty paces you open another, and 
go along a passage at right angles with the 
first ; here the heat increases : they who are 
afraid of exposing themselves suddenly to 
a strong degree of it, stop in a marble 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 9 

hall in the way to the bath, properly so 
called. 

"'The bath is a spacious and vaulted 
apartment, paved and lined with marble, 
around which are four closets. The Vapour, 
incessantly arising from a fountain, and 
cistern of hot water, mixes itself with the 
burning perfumes, and produces the most 
agreeable effects. Extended on a cloth 
spread out, the head supported by a small 
cushion, they stretch themselves freely in 
every posture, whilst they are enveloped in 
a cloud of odoriferous vapours, which pene- 
trate into every pore. 

'^ After reposing there for some time, until 
there is a gentle moisture over the whole 
body, a servant comes, presses you gently, 
turns you over, and when the limbs 
are become supple and flexible, he 
makes all the joints crack without any 
difficulty ; he masses and seems to knead 
the flesh without making you feel the 
least pain. This operation finished, he 



10 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

puts on a stuff glove^ and rubs you a 
long time. 

" During the operation^ he detaches from 
the body of the patient^ which is running 
with perspiration^ a sort of small scales^ 
and removes the imperceptible impurities 
that stop the pores ; the skin becomes soft 
and smooth like satin. He then conducts 
you into a closet^ pours the lather of per- 
fumed soap upon your head^ and retires. 
This closet is provided with a cistern^ and 
two cocks^ which supply hot and cold water 
— here the bather washes himself. Soon 
after^ the servant returns with a depila- 
tory pomatum, which, in an instant, makes 
the hair fall off the places to which it is 
applied : both men and women make gene- 
ral use of it in Egypt — it is composed of a 
mineral called rusma, (supposed to be an 
oxi/d of arsenic,) which is of a dark brown 
colour : the Egyptians burn it lightly, knead 
it with water, mixing it with half its quan- 
tity of slacked lime ; this greyish paste. 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING;, ETC. 11 

applied to the hair, makes it fall olf in two 
or three minutes, without giving the slightest 
pain. 

" After being well washed and purified, 
you are wrapped up in hot linen, and follow 
the guide through the windings that lead 
to the outer apartment ; this insensible tran- 
sition from heat to cold, prevents our suffer- 
ing any inconvenience from it. On arriving 
at the estrade, you find a bed prepared, and 
when laid down, a child comes to press 
every part of your body with his delicate 
fingers, in order to dry you thoroughly. 
The linen is changed a second time, and 
the child gently grates the callosity of the 
feet with pumice-stone ; he brings a pipe 
and mocha coffee. 

" Coming out of the stove, surrounded by 
a hot and moist Vapour, where the perspira- 
tion gushes from every limb, and transported 
into a spacious apartment open to the ex- 
ternal air, the breast dilates, and you breathe 
with voluptuousness — perfectly massed, and 



12 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

as it were reg^eneratedj you experience an 
universal comfort^ the blood circulates with 
freedom^ and you feel as if disengaged 
from an enormous weighty together with a 
suppleness and lightness to which you 
have hitherto been a stranger ; a lively sen- 
timent of existence diffuses itself to the very 
extremities of the body^ while it is lost in 
delicate sensations^ the soul sympathizing 
with the delight^ enjoys the most agreeable 
ideas — the imagination^ wandering over the 
universe which it embellishes^ sees on every 
side the most enchanting picture, and every 
where the image of happiness. If life be 
nothing but the succession of our ideas, the 
rapidity with which they then recur to the 
memory, the vigor with which the mind runs 
over the extended chain of them, would 
induce a belief, that in the two hours of 
that delicious calm that succeeds the bath, 
one has lived a number of years." 

This account is obviously intended to 
shew the luxurious results of the practice. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 13 

more than its medical influence ; but, at 
the same time, it gives us to understand 
how very salutary its effects must prove, 
when modified and appropriated to the 
condition of disease. 



14 ON VAPOUR BATH;, 



CHAPTER n. 

Process of Massing — Observations on Friction — Friction 
and Percussion— Mexican Bath — Temazcalli — Dr. Pocock 
on Turkish Baths — Franklin on Baths of Persia — Persian 
Baths — Baths among the Moors and Spaniards — Dry Heat 
preceding Vapour — Baths of Abano — Commentary on 
Abano — Appearance in Disease — Practice similar to Cata- 
plasms — Sudatorium — Great Repute — Carlsbad — Heat 
excessive — Bathe as well as drink — Perspiration follows — 
Reiteration also necessary at Abano — Sudatories in St. Ger- 
mane — those of Baia intensely hot — their good Effects by 
Test of Time— Nero's Palace— Baths of Nero. 

The process of massing, as mentioned 
above, and so called by the Egyptians, is 
in most respects the same as shampooing, 
as used throughout India, and in the 
Levant ; which immediately succeeding to 
the baths, causes a unison of action between 
the muscular fibre and the surface, that occa- 
sions both a salutary and refreshing sensa- 
tion ; in a subsequent part of this Treatise, 
a more general and particular account of 
this mechanical action over the surface, will 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 15 

be attended to — from which, with proper 
application, and the necessary perseverance, 
considerable advantage has arisen in a variety 
of instances, but its efficacy and advantage 
depends greatly upon the dexterity and 
manner in which the operation is per- 
formed, which, although merely consisting 
of a particular mode of friction and pres- 
sure, or gentle percussion, is to be attained 
but by practice and long habit. 

Those whose hands are soft and smooth 
are hest suited to this occupation^ and, 
from practice, they become so habituated 
to the process, as to be enabled to con- 
tinue it for a long time, and in a manner 
both agreeable and efficacious, producing 
sensations that by sympathy influence dis- 
eased action, in distant and interior parts, 
and assisting nature in the salutary functions 
of absorption and secretion, by slow but by 
certain and imperceptible gradations. 

Judicious percussion and pressure along 
the course of the muscles, from tliieir inser- 



16 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

tion to their origin, and from their origin 
to their insertion^ also materially assist 
towards the above desired purpose. 

The ancient Mexicans used a Vapour-bath 
which^ in a degree^ was peculiar to them- 
selves^ and which to this day is practised 
by their descendants. 

Its form is that of '" an oven^ with an 
opening at top^ and it is constructed of raw 
bricks^ the floor of the bath being somewhat 
convex^ and lower than the surface of the 
earthj and, according to the Abbe Cavigero, 
the greatest diameter is eight feet, and the 
height six feet^ the entrance being sufficient 
to allow a man to creep into it ; this, with 
its furnace heated from without, is the com- 
mon structure of the Temazcalli. 

"' The bather, with his attendant, enter^ 
close the door, and while he reclines upon 
a mat, the attendant throws water upon a 
hot porous stone, placed on the stove, from 
which a dense vapour arises, which he directs 
or drives downwards, and, with a bunch of 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 17 

niaize^ or herbs made moist, gently beats 
the invalid, particularly on the diseased part ; 
a copious soft sweat follows^, which is con- 
tinued for a longer or a shorter time accord- 
ing to circumstances." 

Doctor Pocock, in speaking of the Turkish 
baths, says, "" one of the greatest refresh- 
ments among the Turks is in going to their 
bagnios ; in the first large room, generally 
covered with a cupola, they undress, and 
putting on their wooden pattens, which they 
use also in their houses, they go into the 
hot room, where they are washed and rubbed 
with brushes and hair-cloths ; they rub the 
feet with a sort of grater made of earthen- 
ware, something resembling the body of a 
bird ; they make all the joints snap, even 
the very neck and all down the back, 
which they think makes the joints supple, 
after this they are shaved, and go into the 
bath ; from this place they return by a room 
not so hot, where they stay awhile, and 
from thence go into the great room, repose 

c 



18 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

in a bedj smoke their pipe, take their coffee^ 
and dress." 

With some variation the practice among 
the Persians is pretty much the same ; 
Franklin describes the baths of Persia as 
large and commodious — " the bath is a 
large room, of an octagon form, with a 
cupola at top, through which the light and 
air are admitted ; on the sides of this room 
are small platforms of wood, raised about a 
foot from the ground, on which the people 
who enter to bathe perform their devotions, 
a ceremony the Persians always previously 
observe. At the upper end of the room is 
a large bason or reservoir of water, built 
of stone, well heated by means of stoves 
made at the bottom, with iron gratings 
over them, and adjoining is another reser- 
voir of cold water, of either of which the 
bather has his choice. 

" When he comes out of the hot bath, 
which is generally in the space of ten or 
twelve minutes, the people in the house 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. l9 

stand ready to perform the operation of 
rubbing- ; and to effect this, he is laid at full 
length on his back, with a pillow to sup- 
port his head ; a brush, made of camels' 
hair, is then used, which completely rubs off 
all the dirt the body has contracted. 

" After rubbing some time, they rinse 
the whole body several times, with several 
basons of warm water, and the person is 
reconducted to the dressing apartment, 
where he shifts and dresses at leisure^, receiv- 
ing a calian to smoke. 

'' The Persians are much more scru- 
pulous than any other eastern nation in 
permitting foreigners to go into their baths, 
which, if attempted with their knowledge 
they prevent, as the bath, by the admission 
of a ferengy, or foreigner, would be deemed 
polluted." 

The Moors and ancient Spaniards used 
rooms and sweating-chambers, formed after 
the manner at present practised by the Ame- 
rican Indians, and which were filled with 
c2 



20 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

vapour of a very high degree of temperature, 
by dashing water on heated stones. 

In times far remote^ the Spaniards intro- 
duced this practice among the Irish, and, 
by means of small conical buildings, rudely 
constructed, its use, under one form or ano- 
ther, has been pretty general amongst the 
working class of that people, up to the 
present time. 

The patient sat or stood within a small 
conical building, which had been previously 
heated, and soon after followed a general 
flow of perspiration. The topical applica- 
tion of vapour, in cases of slow partu- 
rition, still prevails, and is advantageously 
practised upon an improved plan at present 
in Paris. 

Among some of the northern nations, it is 
in use to expose the body for some time 
to a dri/ heat, previous to the admission of 
vapour, and then the latter is believed to 
have a more dipect influence ; this practi- 
cal fact, derived from a source where science 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 21 

has no place, is deserving of attention, and 
will receive illustration as we proceed in the 
consideration of vapour. 

The hot springs of Italy and of Germany 
are found by long experience to be of signal 
efficacy when used in their fluid or vaporific 
state. The reputation of the baths of the 
village of Abano, a few miles from Padua, 
and in the vicinity of the Euganean hills, 
has been long since established. 

They arise from a tumulus in a plain, 
and '' burst forth in two or three copious 
streams of hot water, which are capable of 
boiling an e^^ hard at their source. '* A 
modern traveller expresses himself thus : "" It 
is not, however, upon its geological wonders 
that the modern notoriety of Abano prin- 
cipally rests. It is celebrated for its muds, 
which are taken out of its hot basins, and 
applied either generally or partially, as the 
case of the patient may demand. 

'' These are thrown by after having been 
used, and at the conclusion of the season 



2^ ON VAPOUR BATH, 

returned to the hot fountains^ where they 
are left till the ensuing spring, that they 
may impregnate themselves anew with the 
mineral virtues, which these are supposed to 
contain. 

" The most obvious of those to an igno- 
rant man, are si>lt and sulphur. The muds 
aye, on being taken out, intensely hot, and 
must be kneaded and stirred some time, 
before they can be borpe. When applied, 
ao operation whicli very much resembles 
the taking a stucco cast, they retain their 
heat, without mucli sensible diminution fov 
three-quarters of an hour, having the effect 
of a slight rubefacient on the affected part, 
and producing a profuse perspiration from 
the whole body," 

Thus, by the agency of this mud, either 
generally or topically applied, a hot vapour 
is produced, causing an active circulation 
and efflorescence on the surface, so as to 
produce considerable advantage in gouty, 
r.heun^atic, j^nd paralytic affections; for, by 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 23 

confiniii«»* the heated vapour, and retaining 
it innnediately over the affected part, its 
efticacious consequences are often considera- 
ble ; this, in a less degree, is the connnon 
result of our practice in the use of fomenta- 
tions and cataplasms under certain circum- 
stances, which prove useful in proportion 
to the heat, reducing the contained moisture 
into vapour on the affected part. 

The vapour arising from these waters 
being conveyed into a sudatoreum, is ap- 
plicable to the removal of a variety of 
diseases, which have been found to resist the 
w aters as a bath, in the usual manner ; and 
this efi'ect, as well as that arising from the 
application of the mineralized muddy sedi- 
ment, has raised the reputation of the baths 
of Abano so highly in arthritic, paralytic, 
and every species of muscular debility, that 
many of the accounts would seem incredible 
were they not well authenticated, which, 
however, must be considered as strong and 
convincing proofs of I he superior efti- 



44- ON VAPOUR BATH_, 

caey of steam in most diseases of this 
character. 

At Carlsbad^ in Bohemia^ are the cele- 
brated hot baths,, first extolled into notice 
by Charles IV. ; their degree of heat is 
excessive, and their efficacy is principally 
produced in conjunction with the use of 
heated rooms, while the patients drink these 
waters of as high a temperature, and in as 
large quantities as they are capable ; a 
profuse exudation from the skin ensues, 
and the relief from diseased feeling is so con- 
siderable as to promise an immediate cure, 
did not experience teach that the reiteration 
of their use, often to a protracted period, is 
generally required towards its completion. 

This latter observation is applicable to 
the vapour, mud, and mineral waters of 
Abano, which, after long and patient 
trials, have proved most successful, where, 
from a few applications at the commence- 
ment, the expected relief was by no means 
probable. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 25 

The natural warm baths of Italy, parti- 
cularly those of ancient Baia, Tritoli, and 
St. Germane, are of so high a temperature 
as to produce vapour in considerable abund- 
ance. 

In the sudatories of the latter place, where 
there are several apartments, an exposure 
to the heated steam issuing from the earth 
produces a copious flow of perspiration, its 
heat being modified and moderated accord- 
ing to circumstances. 

In those of Baia, situated not far from 
the ancient ruins of the Emperor Nero's 
palace, the vapour near its source is so 
intensely hot, that it is not to be borne 
without very great inconvenience, but, under 
proper rule and regulation, the application 
of this steam to the removal of many chronic 
diseases, is of most signal service, and from 
a modern account it is manifest that the test 
of time has confirmed the character those 
sudatories have obtained. 

From a small work, published by M. 



26 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

Marien Vasi, it may not be irrelevant to 
quote the following description of the 
Vapour Baths at Tritoli, or^ as they are 
called,, Nero's Baths, situated near to the 
lake Avernus. 

BAINS DE NERON. 

" Les habitans de Baies montrent aux 
voyageurs les etuves de Tritoli, sous le nom 
des Bains de Neron, parceque I'on dit que 
cet Empereur les avait faits construire pour 
son usage ; les paysans vont, avec la plus 
grand facilite, jusqu'au fond d'un grotte 
longue et etroite, chercher dans la source 
I'eau qui est presque bouillante. La cha- 
leur de cette grotte est si grand qu'au 
bout de dix pas, on est, pour ainsi dire, 
suffoque, et il faut de I'habitude et de la 
force pour aller plus loin ; ceux qui y en- 
trent sont presque nus, et ils en reviennent 
au bout de deux minutes tous converts de 
sueur, le visage aussi enflamme que s'ils 
avaient etc dans un four. Lorsque on 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 27 

baisse la tete fort pres de terre, on a beau- 
coup moins de peine a respirer parceque la 
vapeur chaude occupe toujours la plus haut 
de I'etuve, et que I'air froid arrive par la 
partie inferieur. 

'Ml y a dans ces etuves six especes d'al- 
leeSj qui ont six pieds de haut, et trois 
pieds et demi de largeur. L'hopital de 
I'Annonciation de Naples tient une maison 
a Pouzol au commencement de I'ete, d'ou 
Ton envoie a ces etuves les malades qui 
ont besoin de suer ; on y passe un demi 
beure, plus ou moins, apres quoi Ton se 
met au lit dans un endroit moins chaud. 

"' Le nom de Tritoli que portent ces 
etuves, peutetre leur ete donne, parcequ'on 
y frotte les malades pour exciter encore 
mieux la sueur/' 

BATHS OF NERO. 

'' The inhabitants of Baia shew the stoves 
of Tritoli to strangers, under the name of 
the Baths of Nero ; £is it is asserted that 



^8 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

emperor caused them to be constructed for 
his use. 

'' The peasants proceed to the bottom of 
a long and narrow grotto^ with the greatest 
facility^ to fetch from its source the water, 
which is nearly boiling. The heat of this 
grotto is so considerable, that, at the dis- 
tance of ten paces, one may be said to be 
nearly suffocated, and it requires both 
strength and habit to be enabled to proceed 
farther. 

'' Those who enter are nearly naked, 
and, in the space of two minutes, they 
return covered with perspiration, and their 
countenance flushed, as if they had been in 
an oven. 

" When the head is bent very near the 
earth, respiration is much less difficult, as 
the heated vapour always occupies the 
highest part of the stove, and the cool 
air enters through the inferior part. 

" There are in these stoves six dif- 
ferent passages, which are six feet in 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 29 

height, and three feet and a half in 
breadth, 

'' The hospital of the Annonciation at 
Naples^ occupy a house at Pouzolli, at the 
commencement of the summer, from whence 
they send invalids, who require to be sweat- 
edj to these stoves ; they remain therein 
about half an hour, and then retire to bed 
in a cooler place. 

" The name of Tritoli, which these baths 
bear^ has probably been given to them, as 
friction is there used, the better to excite 
perspiration/' 



so 



ON TAPOUR BATH, 



CHAPTER III. 

Metaline Baths — Heated Air — Steam — Steam, 'comparative 
Weight of — Latent and Sensible Heat — Elasticity of Vapour 
— Air-Pump Vapour Bath — Atmospherical Pressure — Den- 
sity and Elasticity — Air's Pressure, relative to Disease — 
Density of Atmosphere. 

The Metaline Bath has been considered 
by some as of great utility in bracing- the 
muscular fibre, and in recovering weak and 
decayed limbs, stopping hemorrage, and in 
female debility. This bath is prepared by 
throwing the scoriae of metals as they 
come hot from the furnace into water, or 
heating them afresh, and using them in like 
manner. 

From this, either a fluid or Vapour-bath 
is produced, and is said to be powerful in 
paralytic affections, debility of the articula- 
tions and muscles, or as a detergent in 
cutaneous foulness ; but its indiscriminate 
use, from the unchemical manner of its 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 31 

preparation, must render expectation from 
it very problematical, and its application 
difficult and uncertain. 

To this general enumeration of the pro- 
duction and application of vapour from 
natural hot springs, might be added many 
other instances and circumstances corrobo- 
rative of the beneficial effects which have 
followed from its medical use, under various 
conditions of disease, at periods far distant 
as well as at the present moment ; but those 
already stated, are sufficient to indicate how 
useful every effort may hereafter prove in 
the general promotion of artificial means, 
by which all the efficiency of natural steam 
may be obtained and used with general 
advantage. 

The powerful agency of air combined 
with water, and by heat converted into 
steam, is so generally understood, as appli- 
cable to a variety of mechanical purposes, 
where great power is required, and where, 
by late improvements, that power is found 



J» ON VAPOUR BATH, 

to be SO great, that a more striking^ or 
familiar proof of its elasticity should not be 
sought for : — this fact has a suitable, but 
rather indirect reference to the subject 
under consideration. 

Water, when reduced to vapour, or when 
in an aerial elastic state, occupies about 
1800 times the space it does when in its 
usual fluid condition, being lighter than 
atmospheric air, according to Kerwan, as 10 is 
to 12, or as 10 to 14, according to Saussure. 

In this process of reducing water into 
vapour, a vast quantity of caloric, or the 
matter of heat, is absorbed, without any 
manifest increase of temperature, beyond the 
boiling point. 

This great influx of heat becomes what 
the late Professor Black called latent heat, 
or heat combined with the elastic fluid, in a 
degree far more considerable than it mani- 
fests itself, except when it emits it on 
being condensed^ when in contact with a 
cooler body. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOlNOj ETC. 83 

It then, from latent^ becomes evolved 
or SENSIBLE heat, and from experiment^ 
were it accumulated, would amount to the 
sum of 900" of Fahrenheit's thermometer. 
"If we observe the heating- of water, we 
shall find that the heat flows into it very 
fast, till it arrives at the boiling* or vaporific 
point. Suppose that in the last five minutes 
its heat is increased 10", in the next five 
we should expect that it would at least be 
six or seven more ; but this is not in reality 
the case, for though very little of the water 
is evaporated, yet the remainder is not sen- 
sibly hotter. 

'^In order to prove the time necessary to 
convert a quantity of water into vapour, a 
number of flat-bottomed cylindrical vessels 
of iron were constructed^ into which a quan- 
tity of water was put^ at the temperature of 
54". The water was heated to the boiling- 
point in four minutes^ but it was not evapo- 
rated in less than twenty. Thus it is evident, 
that the water had acquired 158° of heat in 



34i ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

the space of four minutes^ and consequently, 
as the heat of the fire continued the same, it 
required five times 158° of heat to convert 
it into vapour. 

" This immense accession of caloric is, 
however, neither sensible in the water nor 
in the vapour, for if a thermometer is applied 
to the steam, it will not be found hotter 
than the boiling water ; it is, therefore, 
really absorbed by the fluid, which is con- 
verted into vapour, and is retained in the 
latter in a combined state. When the 
vapour is condensed in the refrigeratory of 
a still, the latent or combined fire is once 
more rendered sensible, for the refrigeratory 
is heated much higher than the sensible 
heat of the vapour, as the heat, if accumu- 
lated, would raise the thermometer to more 
than 800"/' — On this fact, its great power 
in the Vapour-bath may be considered to 
depend, and, in this particular relation, 
should be well understood. 

Mr. Boyle caused air to fill a space 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 35 

8000 times greater than that of its former 
volume ; and^ in another experiment, he 
occasioned it to expand 13680 times more 
than the space it formerly occupied ; in a 
philosophical point of view, facts like these, 
respecting the qualities of air, are as useful 
and wonderful as many, with respect to the 
qualities of vapour. 

'' Vapour is an elastic fluid, that is, it 
admits of being compressed within a com- 
pass proportioned to the force which com- 
presses it. 

" Its force, in resisting compression when 
it is accumulated to a certain degree, is 
however greater than that of gunpowder, 
or of any power with which we are ac- 
quainted. 

" Steam is, therefore, one of the most 
potent and one of the most dangerous agents 
in nature. A small quantity of water thrown 
upon boiling oil, or introduced among 
metals while in fusion, produces the most 
formidable effects. The water sinks towards 



.% . ON YAPOUTt BATti, 

the bottom in the oil, where being con-* 
verted into vapour, by the force of its 
expansion, it causes a most violent ebulli- 
tion and explosion, and throws the heated 
fluid about with incredible velocity." 

Thus far as regards its mechanical use ; 
but, with respect to its medical application, 
its tenuity and elasticity are of very great 
consequence, it being so much less dense 
than atmospherical air ; hence may be in- 
ferred the advantages from its powers and 
influence as a bath, more particularly as its 
rarified state may be progressively and con- 
siderably increased. 

Some years since, an ingenious tract, 
entitled '' Facts and Observations on the 
Use of the Air-Pump Vapour-bath," was 
published by Dr. Blegborough, in which 
he says, '' the surface of an ordinary man's 
body may be estimated at about 2160 square 
inches, which, multiplied by fifteen, gives 
32400 lbs. or nearly 14| tons. This enor- 
mous pressure would crush us in an instant. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 57 

if it were not exactly counterbalanced by 
the spring of the air^ or other elastic fluids 
dift'used throughout every part of our bodies, 
just as the pressure on the outside of a full- 
blown bladder is sustained by the action of 
the air within; or^ to give a still more 
apposite instance^ as the pressure on the 
surface of a shrivelled apple is accurately 
counterpoised by the elasticity of the air 
contained in its pores. 

'' But now, if this full-blown bladder 
and shrivelled apple be placed under the 
receiver of an air-pump, we shall find, that 
as the air is exhausted, the bladder will be 
more and more expanded, till it burst, and 
that the wrinkles on the apple will gradually 
disappear, and its surface become plump 
and turgid. 

'' As an instance perhaps still more in 
point, we may mention a common experi- 
ment ; if an eg^, punctured in the small end, 
be placed in a wine-glass, with the pin-hole 
downwards, and subject to the action of an 



J5 ON VAPOLIR BATH J 

air-pump^ the elasticity of the air naturally 
enclosed in the egg will force its contents 
through the perforation ; but^ on re-admit- 
ting the air into the receiver^ its pressure 
will drive the contents back again into tlie 
shell. 

'' Thus also it is with a small part of the 
human body^ subjected to the operation of 
the syringe-cupping glass^ whieh will illus- 
trate our meaning better than the ordinary 
one. 

'' In proportion as the air is exhausted 
by the syringe, the fluids rush towards the 
small portion of surface, from whence the 
atmospheric pressure is removed with such 
force as to occasion a tumor, and thus the 
blood flows through the wounds previously 
made by the scarificator." 

As immediately connected with this part 
of the subject, a retrospect should be had 
to the well-known influence of atmosphe- 
rical pressure upon animal existence^ and 
a very brief statement of facts, pretty gene- 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 39 

rally known, may tend more fully to eluci- 
date the object under consideration. 

The weig:ht of the atmosphere, by the use 
of the air-pump, is most satisfactorily proved 
to conviction, as it aftbrds, when applied to 
philosophical purposes, a precise knowledge 
of the mechanical influence of air upon our 
bodies in general ; and, from it has been 
deduced a theoretical series, equally clear 
and satisfactory. 

Variations in the density and elasticity 
of the air that surrounds us, have consi- 
derable influence on animal life ; " so great 
a pressure of air upon his body^ may well 
surprise the ignorant man and shake his 
belief, but he must consider^ that this 
weight of air he has carried from his earliest 
infancy. 

" Sensations to which we have been 
always accustomed are scarce felt; we can- 
not perceive the diflerence of things when 
we have no standard by which to measure 
their variations; we cannot perceive the 



40 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

weight of the air, because we have always 
felt its weighty and cannot remove from its 
pressure No one part of the body can be 
disturbed by its pressure, for it lays the 
load equally upon all ; besides this, there 
is a resistance within the body, which 
serves to counterbalance that from with- 
out ; and there is another consideration also, 
which naturalists have passed over unno- 
ticed. The heat of our bodies rarifies the 
air on their surface, so that, in fact, an 
animal doth not sustain so great a pressure 
from the air, as cold inanimate substances 
are found to sustain. In short, to use the 
words of Borelli, ^ since, by the air's pres- 
sure, none of the parts of our bodies can 
suffer separation, luxation, or contusion, nor 
any other change, it is impossible that this 
pressure can produce any pain.' 

" This pressure can do no injury to the 
animal frame ; we find it, by experience, of 
infinite utility. 

^' By it, the parts of our bodies are kept 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 41 

compactly together ; by it, the fluids in our ves- 
sels are prevented from bursting their canals. 

'' Travellers, in ascending high moun- 
tains, feel the want of this pressure, to 
which they are accustomed in the valley; 
as they ascend, they perceive a total lassi- 
tude from the dilation of their vessels, and, 
at last, the blood begins to burst through 
the fine coats of the lungs, and they spit 
blood. It is probable, that similar effects 
are not unfrequently produced by this 
variation in the weight of the atmosphere, 

'" Mead relates, that Dr. Pitcairn, in the 
year 1787, being at his country-seat near 
Edinburgh, in February, on a fairer day 
than usual at that season, was seized with a 
sudden bleeding, after an uncommon faint- 
ness ; and, on the next day, on his return to 
town, he found the barometer was lower 
at that very hour than either he or his 
friend Dr. Gregory, who kept a journal of 
the weather, had ever observed it ; and, that 
another friend of his, Mr. Cockburn, pro- 
fessor of philosophy, had died suddenly at 



#» ' ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

the same hour^ by an irruption of blood 
from his lungs : and also five or six others 
of his patients were seized with different 
hemorrhages."* 

In situations elevated far above the usual 
range of human existence^ the atmosphe- 
rical pressure becomes diminished iti pro- 
portion^ independent of external heat : -r- 
the consequences are very observable ; — the 
air of Mont Blanc, which is about three 
miles above the level of the plains, is found 
to be little more than one half the density, 
causing laborious breathing, and even a flow 
of blood from the chest ; — at this, we are 
not to wonder, when we consider that the 
fall of one-tenth of an inch of the mercurial 
column in the barometer, indicates a differ- 
ence of pressure upon the surface of an ordi- 
nary-sized man's body, equal to sixty-tim 
pounds. 

Atmospheric pressure is clearly illus- 
trated by its influence upon the barometer 



Philosophy of Medicine, 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 43 

ill common use ; and, by accurate calcula- 
tioUj this pressure is equal to fifteen pounds 
weight on every square inch of surface ; 
— a deduction from this fact may serve to 
explain the cause, in some degree^ of the 
superior effects which heat, in the form of 
vapour, is found to have beyond that which 
it possesses in the form of a warm bath, 
having, at the same time, a superior electric 
influence. This superiority is still more 
obvious, when we consider, that the medium 
of the warm bath counteracts the expan- 
sion that heat produces upon our fluids ; 
while, in the other, the rarified state of 
the heated vapour has an effect in propor- 
tion to the diminution of the external pres- 
sure it causes ; the effects that conse- 
quently follow, are much greater upon the 
vital functions, and over diseased action, 
from the one than from the other ; hence, 
we are enabled to form an estimate of the 
changes that may be induced by vapour of 
various degrees of temperature and tenuity. 



44 ON Y A POUR BATH J 



CHAPTER IV. 

Properties of Air and Steam — Mr. Leslie's Experiments — Air, 
its Condensation and Expansion — Application of Vapour — 
Sympathy of Exhaling Surfaces — Sudden Transition to High 
Temperature — Primary Eflect of Vapour — Condensation of 
Vapour — Orifices of the Scarf Skin— Quantity of Perspirable 
Matter — Cuticular Absorption — Ingenhouz's and Cruik- 
shank's Experiments — Secretion by Urine and Perspiration 
— Sequin and Lavoisier's Experiments — Organic Sympathy 
—Lord Bacon — Excessive Temperature — Experiments of 
Sir J. Banks, Sir C. Blagden, and Dr. Fordyce. 

The applicability of the properties of 
air to those of steam, will be found correct, 
as to many particulars ; at the boiling heat, 
steam is much less dense than atmosphe- 
rical air, at the same time possessing equal 
elasticity ; hence may be inferred the advan- 
tages as above, more particularly as its 
rariiied state may be progressively and con- 
siderably increased. 

To this may be added the result of Mr. 
Leslie's experimental enquiries on heat, who 
proves that '' air is found to expand, in like 



rRlcriON, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 45 

circumstances^ five times more than alcohol, 
twenty times more than mercury, 160 more 
than platina, and 580 times more than 
glass." 

He also proves '' that heat is more copious 
in liquids than in solids, and in the airiform 
fluids than in liquids ; that ice is more easily 
heated than water, and water than steam. 
The same addition of heat which would 
raise the temperature of ice ten degrees, 
would only raise that of water nine degrees, 
and that of steam six degrees. 

" Application of warmth invigorates the 
dissolving power of the air, while, by dis- 
tending the particles of the subjected water, 
it facilitates the passage into vapour, and 
the diminution or removal of the incumbent 
atmosphere produces a similar effect, by 
giving a freer or less restrained play to the 
repulsion of the liquid particles^ and hence 
assisting indirectly the attraction of the 
solvent medium. 

[' On this principle depends the consump- 



46 



ON VAPOUR BATHj 



tion of heat, and the consequent reduction 
of temperature, occasioned by the evapora- 
tion of liquids, which are exposed to the 
access of dry air. 

'' The capacity of saline solutions for 
heat, is greater than the intermediate capa- 
city of the water and the salt/' 

In general, our means of procuring the 
discharge of heat are greater than those 
which occasion its absorption. '' Common 
air, on being condensed thirty times, has 
its capacity for heat reduced to one half; 
and, if suddenly compressed to twenty times 
its ordinary density, will disengage so much 
heat, as to shew an elevation of tempera- 
ture equal to nine hundred degrees by 
Fahrenheit's scale, and sufficient for the 
inflammation of most bodies." 

These facts are of considerable moment, 
as they clearly shew the wide distinction 
between vapour and heated water, in their 
separate application under the form of a 
bath; and as in the one, heat is conveyed 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOINGj, ETC. 47 

from a dense medium containing it in an 
imder proportion, and from the other, a 
highly rarified medium, possessing it in a 
super-abundance, and imparting it with 
great facility, not only to the external sur- 
face of the body, but to the most minute 
air-cells of the lungs at the same instant, 
the effect should be considered very different 
indeed, and is consequently much greater 
upon the vital functions, and on diseased 
action, in the generality of cases ; and fur- 
ther, this view of the subject may serve to 
illustrate the general effects of the medium 
in which we exist, and the changes that 
may be induced by the application of 
vapour of various degrees of temperature 
and tenuity ; hence, when steam or vapour 
is diffused over the surface, and brought 
to exercise its full powers under proper 
regulation, the lungs expand with greater 
freedom, a succession of favourable changes 
often ensues, arising from their immediate 
connection, and dependant upon the invigo- 



48 ^ ON VAPOUR BATH, 

rated condition of the skin^ and the rarified 
state of the medium then breathed. 

The diminished pressure of the surround- 
ing vapour, added to the active agency of 
heat, which is imparted under this form 
with great freedom, act like cordials to 
the stomach, imparting vigour and health; 
while the process of circulation and absorp- 
tion proceed with energy and facility, the 
animal spirits become at the moment more 
exhilirated, and a pleasing and luxurious 
sensation pervades the whole system. 

The unison and sympathetic consent be- 
tween these two great exhaling surfaces is 
such, that a free and healthy expansion 
of the one is certain of producing a like 
and simultaneous condition of the other ; 
and a regular exercise of their functions 
is so essential to a general salutary action, 
that, where they become irregular or 
deranged, a state of disease is inevitable ; 
but, when performed agreeably to the ordi- 
nation of animal life, those processes, on 



t'UlCTlON, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 49 

which depend the various secretions and 
other functional exercises of our wonderful 
existence^ proceed with vigour. 

This organic sympathy and the existing 
chain of connection is admirably and nicely 
balanced^ so that, on the accession of disease 
in an internal organ of any importance, its 
presence is soon betrayed by a deranged 
action on the surface : on the contrary, where 
the vicissitudes of climate, or other causes, 
occasion an irregular action on the skin, 
the internal viscera, in one way or another, 
manifest disease in a greater or less degree. 

In passing the equinoctial line, from the 
very sudden transition into an atmosphere 
of high temperature, the flow of perspi- 
ration being very profuse, the other secre- 
tions are consentaneously increased, and that 
of bile in a most considerable quantity. To 
this sympathetic action between the surface 
and the viscera in climates where iHie former 
is powerfully acted upon, may be imputed 
the morbid condition of these organs in 

E 



ON VAPOUR BATH, 



exciting 



lose who, from residence and 
^auses^ have been for many years exposed 
their baneful influence^ sadly proving;, 
by one of the Islws of nature, that the more 
an organ is called into action, the more it 
is liable to disease. 

With respect to the primary effect of 
vapour upon the human body, it may be 
here necessary to observe, that the tem- 
perature of the latter being some degrees 
lower than that of the former, causes a 
rapid and considerable deposition of watery 
fluid over the surface, which trickles down 
profusely. This, at first view, is often mis- 
taken for perspiration, but is, for the most 
part^ vapour deprived of a portion of its heat, 
by coming in contact with a body of lower 
temperature ; and from it for some moments 
the sensation is rather mipleasant, until the 
pores are sufficiently open, and the perspira- 
tion flows with freedom, when the feeling's 
become soothed, and the vital actions light 
and renovated. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 5! 

The condensation of vapour upon the 
hair during- this time^ is very inconsiderable, 
indeed it is scarcely observable, as it appears 
comparatively dry ; this, to many, seems a 
curious circumstance, but, from what has 
been just observed, with respect to the com- 
parative temperature of the vapour to that 
of the skin, is satisfactorily accounted for ; 
and here, with propriety, the valuable 
observation of Dr. Black may be adverted 
to, '' that steam is the most faithful carrier 
of heat that can be conceived, as it will 
deposit it only on such bodies as are colder 
than 312°." 

In some instances it may be questioned 
whether this exposure to heated vapour 
causes more exudation, or cuticular absorp- 
tion ; but there is reason to believe that a 
uniformity of effect should not be expected 
with reference to this part of the subject, 
in a variety of constitutional circumstances 
must necessarily occasion a diversity of 
results ; and, when w^e view with wonder 

Jill f» 



5^ ON VAPOUR EATH, 

the minute organizations of the skin, this 
must appear still more obvious. 

Leeuwenhoek reasons, that, in one of the 
scales of the scarf skin, with which the human 
body is covered, there may be five hundred 
excretory channels, and that one grain of 
sand will cover two hundred and fifty scales, 
or, twenty -jive thousand orifices ; so that this 
view of the subject, if at all just, must give 
us an idea of their being both excessively 
minute and numerous ; and, in their propor- 
tionate number, may be looked upon their 
importance, as an organization subservient 
to a function of great consideration . 

Perspiration is technically called either 
sensible or insensible, the latter being in a 
measure constant, the other more observa- 
ble, and at times much more considerable 
than at others ; this, also, according to the 
climate and season of the year, men perspire 
more than women. 

Between Keill and Sanctorius, who both 
wrote upon the subject, there is a difference 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 63 

as to the quantity of insensible perspiration, 
with reference to the solid and liquid food 
consumed. By his experiments and obser- 
vations, the former makes it amount to one 
half, or rather less, while from the patient 
and elaborate investigation of the latter, the 
insensible perspiration appears to amount 
to one half the assumpta; this difference 
must arise from the climate, and manner of 
living, according- to the habit and usages of 
the countries in which the experiments were 
made. 

'' Sanctorius deserves great commendation 
for the prodigious pains he took in so nicely 
and minutely observing, for so long a space 
of time, the various changes of the quantity 
of perspiration upon different occasions. 

" But is it not amazing that, in thirty years 
space, he should never once have thought 
on inhalation, or absorption from without.^ 
If inhalation or resorption is not considered; 
it is plain that only the apparent, not the 
real quantity of perspiration can be found 
by statical experiments. 



54 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

''If, for example, the body, after ten 
hours, is found lighter than it was by ten 
ounces, without any sensible discharge, it 
doth not follow, that jjst ten ounces and no 
more are exhaled during that space ; because^ 
two or three ounces might have been gained in 
the same time, by the way of resorption^, in 
which case the real quantity of perspiration is 
not ten, but twelve or thirteen ounces ; so 
that weighing the body shews only the 
excess of the latter above the former, as Dr. 
Arbuthnot hath, and I believe the first, 
distinctly and explicitly taught. 

" A lad at Newmarket having been almost 
starved, in order that he might be reduced 
to a proper weight for riding a match, was 
weighed at nine o'clock in the morning, and 
again at ten o'clock, and he was found to 
have gained near thirty ounces in the course 
of an hour, though he had only drank half a 
glass of wine in the interval.* 

'' A gentleman in the city was lately 

Dr. Watson's Chemical Essays. 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 55 

weighed before dinner, and was highly of- 
fended to find, from his weight, not long 
after dinner, that he must have eaten, unless 
some deceit was played upon him, above 
two pounds of beef-stakes, so much had he 
increased in weight. 

'' In the year 1779, Dr. ingenhousz dis- 
covered that the animal body threw out 
azotic and fixed airs. 

'' In the very same year, Mr. Cruikshank, the 
celebrated author of a work on the absorbent 
system, and lecturer on anatomy in London^ 
published a similar discovery, and, in justice 
to both characters, I must observe, as 1 heard 
from Dr. Ingenhousz, that their respective 
works were in the press at the same time. 
This, however, is not the only instance of 
two persons, ignorant of each others 
pursuits, happening to hit upon the same 
thing. "* 

Nothing was more simple than the expe- 
riment of these philosophers ; the hand was 
immersed under quicksilver, and the bub- 
bles of air collected, and it was discovered 



Ob ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

that the discharge from the surface of the 
body was^ 

1st. Two parts fixed air. 
2d. One part azotic air." 

In a humid atmosphere, the skin front 
absorption^ or a deficiency of evaporation^ 
causes a greater increase in the urinary 
secretion. 

In the year 1759, from the barbarous and 
cruel sentence executed upon a wretched 
negro-man, by hanging him alive in chains 
at Charles Town, in South Carolina, a proof 
of absorption by the skin was afforded ; he 
had eaten but scantily before he was hung, 
and had no sort of nourishment afforded him 
afterwards ; he, however, voided a quantity 
of urine daily, while existing in this mise- 
rable state ; the time he voided it was in the 
morning, the heavy evening dews having 
supplied the quantity. 

M. Sequin and the celebrated Lavoisier 
bestowed great pains upon this subject ; the 
result may be considered satisfactory, but 
the detail of experiments entered upon, to 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 57 

come to this conclusion, would be too exten- 
sive for the bounds of this treatise ; however, 
taking' into account the fluid exudation 
from the lungs, and the emission of per- 
spirable matter from the skin, it has, from 
the scrutiny of these philosophers, been 
ascertained to amount to fifty-four ounces 
during twenty -four hours, allowing for that 
difference, in this account, which naturally 
must arise from the temperature and con- 
dition of the atmosphere, and from a greater 
or less degree of exercise ; hence we may 
conclude, that any considerable interruption 
to a function of such importance, must cause 
a very general derangement in others equally 
so ; and, consequently, as we every day 
witness in our variable climate, the accession 
of a great variety of diseases, at once 
painful and obstinate. Here it may not be 
irrelevant to observe, that even the human 
passions have been, by Celsus, placed under 
two orders of action — the first from the cir- 
cumference to the centre, and the second from 



58 



VAPOUR BATH, 



the latter to the former. Functional action^ 
in an increased or diminished degree^ has so 
strong a coimection with these two orders 
of mental afFectionS;, that disease is but too 
frequently a consequence ; while a resto- 
ration to health, in many instances^, also 
follows in a very striking manner from this 
catinated sympathy. 

The organic sympathy to which allusion 
is now made, and the existing chain of 
connection, is admirably and nicely ba- 
lanced, so that, on occasions where disease 
commences in an internal organ, its presence 
is soon manifested by a deranged action on 
the surface, or from the surface to an in- 
ternal organ ; thus, the experiment of de- 
ranging the cutaneous exudation by the 
application of unctuous substances over 
the entire surface, causes diseased action 
in the head; from which fact. Lord Bacon 
tersely and shrewdly observed, '' when vapour 
from the skin is obstructed, vapours in the 
head soon after ensue." 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 59 

However, on a view of this part of the 
subject, it is a matter of great wonder that 
transitions from the extremes of heat to 
cold, and from cold to heat, are not more 
frequently followed by serious consequences ; 
but the resources of the human constitution 
are amply provided against those exigencies, 
as may be strongly exemplified from what 
follows. 

It may be observed, with respect to heat, 
that existing for a limited time in an 
apartment heated to as high a degree as 
240'' or 260°, caused no dangerous con- 
sequences, although the perspiration that 
flowed was excessive previously to a removal 
into the open air. This experiment, as 
mentioned in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society, some considerable time since, was 
tried by Sir Joseph Banks, Sir Charles 
Blagden, and Dr. Fordyce; and lately, in 
France, some young persons exposed them- 
selves in a drying-room to its influence, where 
the heat was as high as 292°, with perfect 



60 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

impunity — these are experimental proofs, 
which further shew, that heat^ in an exces- 
sive degree, may be conveyed without 
danger to the surface, through a rarified 
medium ; whereas a minor degree, conveyed 
through a denser medium, would produce 
fatal results. 

But however wonderful these instances 
may appear, of the capability inherent in 
the constitution of sustaining heat increased 
to so high a degree, without subsequent 
mischief, the power with which the human 
body resists an intense degree of cold, is a 
subject of equal astonishment. Yet the 
consequences, from a partial application 
of heat or cold, are of a most dangerous 
character, when in an unaccustomed or 
undue degree.— In the coup de soleil we 
feel the direct effect of the one ; and^ by the 
other, a numerous train of disease, either 
directly or indirectly, are adduced. 

In conditions of the atmosphere, as to its 
degree of heat or cold, which may be dia- 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 61 

metrically opposite, a uniformity of tempe- 
rature is admirably maintained, and the 
same degree of animal heat produced in the 
human constitution, notwithstanding- ex- 
ternal circumstances, otherwise existence 
could not be supported for any length of 
time. 



6% ON VAPOUR BATH, 



CHAPTER V. 

Division of Vapour Baths — Medicated Vapour — Aromatic and 
Sulphur Vapour — Gout, Rheumatism, Paralysis, and Scro- 
fula — Mon. Rapou, Douche De Vapour— Mercurial Fumi- 
gation — Balnea Laconica — Medicated Vapour — Dr. De 
Carro — Medicated Vapour Baths — Vapour from Tar — 
Nitro-Muriatic Bath — Description of Vapour Bath — Slipper 
Vapour Bath. 

The division of Vapour-baths into dry 
and HUMID is by no means irrational or 
unattended with advantage, as, under dif- 
ferent circumstances, the application of 
either may serve purposes in preference to 
the other. 

Some mineral and odoriferous substances, 
as mercury, cinebar, sulphur, camphor, &c. 
&c. are made diffusible in this way, when 
their application would be impracticable 
and inefficacious under a humid form, 
heat acting in unison, and promoting their 
efficacy. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 63 

The Turks bear the alternation of heat 
and cold, from the use of the bath, in nearly 
an equal degree with the inhabitants of the 
northern climates ; and, whether from habit, 
_or from the effect naturally to be expected 
under such circumstances, the removal of 
many diseases to which they are subject is 
seldom or never expected, independant of 
the aid of this powerful agent. Aromatics 
and odoriferous ingredients are used to 
heighten the luxury of enjoyment, in those 
apartments of high temperature, which, 
when not frequented to excess, are both 
luxurious and salutary ; so that, on those 
occasions, peculiar odours with which the 
vapour is impregnated, are observed to 
diminish diseased action, more than could 
be presupposed from reasoning upon ab- 
stract principles, or from any other evidence 
except that of experience. 

Under the head of dry Vapour-bath_, 
may be ranged fumigation from sulphurous 
vapour, as practised by Dr. Gales at Paris, 



64 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

in the Hopital De St. Louis, and of late 
introduced into this country, and practised 
under an improved plan by Dr. Dick, of 
London, and also at Brighton. 

This kind of fumigation has proved of 
considerable utility in many cutaneous dis- 
eases found to have resisted the most active 
usual means, and from its effects numerous 
well - authenticated cases are on record, 
shewing its applicability and superiority in 
inveterate instances of this class of diseases, 
which occur much more frequently than is 
generally supposed, as, under one form or 
another, few individuals pass through life 
totally exempt from some disease of the 
skin. 

Under the varied changes that occur in 
cases of gout, rheumatism, paralysis, and 
scrofula, the application of sulphur vapour 
acts as a most powerful agent, conjoined 
with the aid of suitable medicines, which 
in these obstinate complaints require a 
cautious and judicious administration. . 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 65 

Mon. Rapon, of Lyons, applies what he 
calls his Douche de Vapeur, in the cutane- 
ous complaint commonly called ring-worm, 
opthalmia^ some diseases of the ear, and 
- many other local affections, with great ad- 
vantage; by this means, any part may be 
instantly blistered with the greatest facility^ 
which in some urgent cases is an object of 
important consideration. 

From mercurial fumigation^ a more im- 
mediate effect may be expected than can be 
derived from the use of this mineral ex- 
ternally by friction, or internally under any 
of its chemical combinations; and, where 
its influence is required to be immediate, 
this mode of administration will be found 
to have a great superiority; however, it 
should be most cautiously exhibited, as its 
administration requires both experience and 
the utmost circumspection with reference to 
constitutional peculiarities, to sanction its 
particular use. 

The practice of exposing ulcerated parts 



bo ON VAPOUR BATH, 

to the local influence of mercurial vapour, 
by volatilizing red sulphuretted mercury, 
or the submuriate of mercury, has often 
been successfully exercised, and from this 
we may judge of its great utility, upon 
more general application. 

Previously to our improved knowledge of 
the use of mercury, it was not unusual, in 
what were called the salivation wards of 
our public hospitals, to place the newly- 
admitted patients under the blankets of 
those who had previously used mercurial 
friction ; respiring this mercurial efiluvia, 
and the use of a comparatively small quan- 
tity of mercury, soon produced a profuse 
ptyalism. 

Under the appellation of Balnea Laconica, 
as used by the Greeks and Romans, the 
vapour was impregnated with particular 
medicinal plants ; and such are our general 
sensations, as influenced by diflferent odours^ 
that the practice often proved successful 
where the eflfect from the heat and steam 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 67 

of simple or sea-water was found inefficient ; 
hence, in oriental countries, various vapours, 
from aromatic woods and balsams, from 
plants whose leaves and flowers and essential 
oils diffuse grateful and refreshing odour, 
are used medicinally and advantageously, as 
remedies in disease, or as sources of luxury 
and voluptuousness ; this practice has the 
sanction of antiquity. Hippocrates used 
vapour, (particularly in female complaints,) 
charged with medicinal substances of dif- 
ferent kinds, and modern experience every 
day gives further proof of its great utility. 

In the military hospital at Naples, under 
the active and persevering hand of Assalini, 
between six and seven hundred patients 
have been cured by the application of 
vapour, medicated with a variety of sub- 
stances ; and, from the experience of Doctor 
De Carro, of Vienna, in cases of gout and 
rheumatism, the successful compared with 
the unsuccessful cases, by this means of cure, 
are as seven to one. 

f2 



68 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

Mercury, sulphur, camphor, opium, the 
vegetable, mineral and volatile alkalies, 
essential oils and aromatics, have each and 
all their respective advantages. Some of 
these substances are rendered vaporific in 
a dry form ; others require previous solu- 
tion, in watery or other fluids, before this 
can be effected; amongst these, that most 
commonly in use is sea- water, which conveys 
in its vapour a sufficiency of sea-salt to 
render this bath of more general utility 
than vapour from heated water, although 
the latter, in some pulmonic diseases, (such 
as insipient phthisis and asthma,) may be 
found most suitable, as from experiment 
it is proved to contain less decomposable 
oxygen gas. 

Modern experience has shewn, that the 
stimulus of carbonic acid gas combined with 
warm water, and exhibited under the form 
of a warm bath^ is applicable to the circum- 
stances of disease, from its action on the 
surface being of a particularly grateful cha- 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 69 

racter. At Aix-la-Chapelle, this form of 
bath is now in use, and is artificially pre- 
pared at the new institution formed for the 
production of mineral waters at Brighton.* 

The ancients had in use a kind of bath, 
where the body was exposed to the sun's 
heat for a certain time, and this upon the 
erroneous principle of digesting the humours ; 
and, with a like expectation, some rude 
nations cover the body over with heated 
horse-dung, perhaps with results similar to 
those from the pulp of olives heated by slow 
fermentation, as practised in Spain. 

Fumigation from the vapour of tar has, 
in some stages of pulmonic affections, been 
highly recommended ; but, from its use, little 
should be expected, as, in cases of confirmed 



* Modern chemistry has now arrived at such a degree of 
perfection, that, at this newly-established institution, factitious 
waters are made so exactly to resemble the natural waters, at 
the source, particularly those of Carlsbad — Ems— Marienbad — 
Eger — Pyrmont and Spa, that it is impossible to distinguish 
between what are artificial, or what are real, either from the 
flavour or medicinal effects. 



70 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

phthisis, it is worse than useless; and, in 
the incipient stage, more irritation is pro- 
duced than from the simple and old-fash- 
ioned method by Mudge's inhaler, on 
which an improvement of utility has been 
lately made by Dr. Cameron, of Liverpool. 

As it has been strenuously contended for 
that a considerable effect is often produced 
by the nitro-muriatic bath, as introduced 
into practice by Dr. Scott, heated chlorine 
gas has been used by Mr. Wallis, of Dublin, 
from which results much more obvious have 
arisen, in cases where this vapour may have 
been applicable ; but time and experience 
must hereafter more fully prove the utility 
of the one or the other. 

For purifying hospitals, ships and prisons, 
vapour from the mineral acids has, from the 
experiments of Dr. Carmichael Smyth, been 
ascertained of very general utility ; more 
particularly that of nitrous vapour, which, 
from many trials, was found to correct and 
destroy contagion in the wards of hospitals 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 71 

in jails, and on board the ships of the navy. 

The most simple means of procuring this 
vapour, is by decomposing nitre or common 
salt by means of sulphuric acid ; the latter is 
put into a shallow glass saucer, placed in 
sand, which is kept heated by a lamp ; to this 
is added, from time to time, powdered nitre, 
or common salt ; the number of vessels of 
this description, and their situation, must be 
arranged according to circumstances, and 
the extent of the apartment to be freed from 
contagion. 

In cases of ulceration, of a foetid and 
ill-conditioned character, fumigation from 
nitrous vapour, both general and topical, 
will prove most salutary and useful. 

The Electrico-iEherial baths, used formerly 
by Mr. Lawnds, and now upon an improved 
and very efficacious plan by Mr. Adams, 22, 
Ludgate-street, are deserving of particular 
attention, as the powers of the electrical 
apparatus are such as to command the full 
influence of the electrical fluid under all its 
forms and modifications, without the usual 



73 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

difficulty and labour in its production. By 
this ingenious and judicious contrivance 
there is no effect to be derived from elec- 
tricity^ that is not under commandj and ren- 
dered applicable to every medical purpose 
that may be required^, with the greatest 
facility. 

Thus far, in respect to different vapour 
and gaseous baths ; but, as to the present 
mode of applying aqueous vapour, the form 
is both simple and efficacious, where it is 
intended for one person at a time. Without 
adverting to the grand and magnificent 
scale on which establishments of this nature 
have been formed, almost every intention 
may be fulfilled by the simple contrivance 
now in general use, which is found practi- 
cally suitable to most medical purposes ; and 
it may be observed, with great truth, that as 
we improve in every science, or art, the 
means become more simple; and, with 
respect to the use and application of the 
Vapour-bath, this is constantly verified. 

In an under apartment, a boiler, having 



FRICTION J SHAMPOOING;, ETC. 73 

a safety valve, contains a sufficiency of 
water for the necessary supply ; — from the 
centre of its semispherical cover, a tube 
issues to the apartment above^, and opens 
into a hollow space eighteen inches above 
the floor, which is either square or circular, 
the surface being covered with wicker-work 
sufficiently strong to sustain the weight of 
the patient and the seat ; four slight posts 
support a cupola, and over all is a covering 
of thick white woollen cloth, which is imper- 
vious to steam, and through which there 
are openings for the convenience of the 
patient and those in attendance ; — through 
one of those, at one side, the head is easily 
freed from the vapour, should it prove too 
powerful ; it is also lessened in its intensity, 
by a valve at the top and by a stop-cock at 
bottom, its further admission is regulated 
with facility. 

When all is prepared, the vapour issues 
instantly into the hollow space, and gra- 
dually ascends, diffiising a genial warmth. 



74 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

which is increased or diminished according 
to circumstances^ and thus applied for a 
longer or shorter time^ as may be deemed 
necessary. 

Should sea-water or medicated fluid be 
preferred^ the boiler is charged accordingly, 
and either for partial or general application 
this apparatus is found of practical utility. 

The hollow space over which the wicker 
work is extended, is interposed between the 
opening of the conducting tube and the 
bather, to prevent the inconvenience that 
otherwise must arise from the heated vapour 
immediately issuing from below, and coming 
in direct contact with the lower part of the 
body and limbs, previously to its heat being 
in a certain degree diminished. 

For temporary purposes, the slipper-bath 
lined with thick flannel may serve for apply- 
ing vapour: — a tube of a proper length 
from a tea-kettle conveying the hot vapour, 
while the patient, in a flannel dress, is ex- 
posed to its influence : — this plan should be 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 75 

preferred to that of conveying vapour to a 
patient in bed, the blankets being supported 
by a semi-circular wooden frame : In either 
casC;, vapour from a spirit lamp may be sub- 
stituted with less inconvenience than from 
boiling water ; and, under some conditions 
of disease, this spirit lamp vapour answers 
every purpose, it being possible to raise the 
temperature to any necessary degree. 

In cases of suspended animation from 
drowning, or other causes where this remedy 
is quickly required, this may probably be 
considered as one of the most simple and 
expeditious means of conveying heat. 
. Mr. Wood, of Brighton, formerly of Lon- 
don, whose ingenuity has contrived one of 
the best means of preserving ships on long 
voyages from leakage and the worm, by the 
interposition of felt between the planks, has 
suggested the utility of using a dress com- 
pletely enveloping the body and limbs, 
composed of soft thick woollen felt — hollow 
tins, formed so as to cover the chest and ab- 



76 ON VAPOUR BATHj 

domen — the limbs and soals of the feet are 
filled with boiling water^, and placed over 
the felt : — From these^ a genial warmth is 
instantly conveyed through the felt to the 
surface^ and kept up for any necessary time, 
by renewing the hot water. 

Under circumstances of local inflamma- 
tion, either for the purposes of a topical 
fomentation, to promote absorption or sup- 
puration, the use of felt and heat conveyed 
from hot water within the tin, may be found 
more suitable than the usual means now 
practised, and the application of cataplasms. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC 77 



CHAPTER yi. 

Doctor Govvei's Tracts — Spirit Lamp Vapour Bath — Warm 
Bath healed from Vapour — ^aths on extensive Scale — 
Sliami>ooing;. 

Dr. Charles Gower^ of London, in his 
TRACTS descriptive of the auxiliaries to medi- 
cine, has given a plan of the spirit lamp 
Vapour-bath or sudatorium, with an illus- 
tration by a plate. 

The annexed engraving represents a 
domestic sudatorium, which is heated by a 
spirit lamp, and, therefore, may be called a 
Spirit lamp Vapour-bath. 

On the surface of a mattress, in Fig. I., the 
patient is represented horizontally at full 
length, in the most easy position for remain- 
ing during the use of the bath : — over the 
patient is placed a frame of basket-work, 
being of a light material, and suited to sus- 
tain a thick covering lined with oil-cloth^ so 
as to retain the vapour, and at the same time 



78 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

prevent the moisture from penetrating the 
bed-clothes : — at the end of the frame, at a, a 
tube enters, through which the vapour is 
conveyed : — this tube is formed of tin-plate, 
and, instead of being soldered, is grooved 
at the joint, as the heat in passing through 
the tube would be so intense as to separate 
the soldering : — this tube should be of suffi- 
cient length to obviate the inconvenience 
which the heat of the vapour (being more 
than sufficient,) might occasion. 

The lamp being nearly filled with spirit of 
wine, the wick set fire to, the top to which 
the tube is fitted being adjusted, the air 
which enters the tube is heated with great 
rapidity. 

Figure II. represents the lamp upon an 
enlarged scale, with perforations through 
the top, for the admission of a current of air, 
immediately over the flame, by which means 
it becomes heated and rarified in a sufficient 
degree for the desired purpose. 

Ill order ioore perfectly to understand the 



FUICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 79 

whole of this contrivance, it is necessary to 
observe that the cradle forms, when placed 
over the patient, a hollow chamber, which is 
rendered air-tight in a sufficient degree, by 
tucking the covering around, leaving it 
optional in the patient to place his liead 
within the cavity, or withdraw it at plea- 
sure. 

The following description of the cradle, as 
recommended by Dr. Gower, will serve in 
the most essential particulars for that in Fig. 
L — '' The cradle is made of longitudinal 
bars of ozier, placed at the distance of an 
inch or more asunder, and preserved in their 
situation by occasional cross bands of basket 
work. The shape may be compared to the 
half of a truncated cone, divided in a direc- 
tion from the apex to the base, its length 
being four feet four inches, its main width 
at the base, which covers the patient's 
shoulders, two feet, and the smaller end only 
one foot five inches. 

*' Within the edges of the narrow end is 



»U ON VAPOUR BATH, 

laced a thin piece of board, by means of 
young and pliant oziers, passed through 
perforations for that purpose, and worked 
into the cradle ; and a circular orifice is made 
in the centre of the board, or a little below 
it, for the admission of the point of the curved 
tube, so that it may be tightly fitted to its 
diameter/' — The tube in Dr. Gower's suda- 
torium is curved, and formed of tin-plate, 
grooved and made to rest upon the lamp, 
which is placed upon the floor of the cham- 
ber; and, in place of the perforations being 
in the top of the lamp, they are made 
through the lowest part of the tube, a little 
above the part at which it is joined to the 
lamp : — The tube from the bottom to where 
it is inserted into the lower part of the cradle 
is thirty inches, which is of sufficient length 
to prevent the air being too hot on coming 
in contact with the patient. In some parti- 
culars, the lamp with the spirit of wine 
could be caused to burn without a wick or 
wicks, whiclj are in a great degree unneces- 




< i 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC, 8l 

sary, and indeed the spirit of wine seems to 
act without them, besides admitting of a 
quick and certain extinction, by the aid of a 
caver or extinguisher, as soon as the opera- 
tion is finished."* 

The patient should be wrapped in flannel 
or a blanket, and in this way profuse sweat- 
ing may be obtained at the heat of 85° of 
Fahrenheit, more effectually in many cases 
than at a higher temperature ; indeed, a bed 
heated to a certain degree by the usual 
means, which heat being kept up for a much 
longer time than usual, constitutes a simple 
dry Vapour-bath of no small efficacy. 

From what has been mentioned, respect- 
ing the necessary quantum of heat to reduce 
water into vapour, and the rapidity with 
which vapour imparts its heat to colder 
bodies, a warm fresh or sea-water bath may 

* The whole of the articles for a sudatorium may be 
had of Mr. Dedrick Smith, Tin -plate -worker, 14, Ger- 
rard-street, Soho; or of Moser, and Co., 52, Frith-street, 
Soho, London. 



S2 ON VAPOUR BATHj 

be very quickly prepared, by heated vapour 
being conducted through a tube, first per- 
pendicularly ascending along the outside of 
the bath, and then carried downwards under 
the lower stratum of the water. 

Upon a more enlarged and general scale, 
where expence is not a consideration in com- 
parison to their great utility, baths have 
been erected, which afford an ample and 
convenient means of exhibiting this remedy. 

A vast deal is due by the public to the 
Honourable Basil Cochrane, w^ho, at a great 
expence, has erected baths upon a grand 
scale, at his residence, Portman-square, 
London ; and who, from the advantage he 
experienced in his own person from the use 
of the Vapour-bath, has been at very great 
pains and expence to render this means of 
relief as general as possible, and through 
whose meritorious efforts many have derived 
most signal advantage. Baths on an exten- 
sive scale, where a limited number of per- 
sons may be exposed to vapour at the same 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 83 

time, in apartments formed for that purpose, 
are more luxurious and agreeable, as the 
space admits of a free and more unconfined 
respiration. 

Should the application of vapour in disease 
become a national object, no means, upon an 
enlarged plan, can suit better than that of 
the gentleman just mentioned, which, at the 
same time, comprises the application of steam 
to a variety of purposes necessary in a do- 
mestic or public institution. 

Thus far as to what relates to the differ- 
ent kinds and modifications of Vapour-baths ; 
and, as in some measure connected with the 
subject, as generally practised when this 
remedy is most in use, some account of the 
process of shampooing should be adverted 
to ; for if, from accident or from disease^ 
local complaints should require friction, this 
process is frequently succeeded by advanta- 
geous consequences not to be obtained from 
other means, and not unfrequently verifies 
an observation of Sir William Temple^ that 
g2 



84 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

a man who could keep a slave to rub him^ 
need never have the gout. 



SHAMPOOING. 

This operation which, as before stated, is 
in Egypt called massing, although simple 
and strictly speaking, a process of friction 
and extension of the tendons and ligaments, 
requires practice and dexterity to perform it 
with comfort and utility to the patient. 

In India, where each domestic's employ- 
ment is specifically assigned, persons are 
instructed in the art, and prized in propor- 
tion to the facility and dexterity with which 
they perform it ; and which, from early in- 
fancy, is practised upon children and persons 
of all ages, rendering their joints supple, 
and their muscles elastic. 

After exposure to the bath, while the body 
is yet warm from the effects of the vapour, 
the shampooman proceeds, according to the 
circumstances of the case, from gentle fric- 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 85 

tion, gradually increased to pressure, along 
the fleshy and tendinous parts of the limb ; 
— he kneads and grasps the muscle repeat- 
edly, presses with the points of his fingers 
along its course, and then follows friction in 
a greater or less degree, alternating one with 
the other, while the hand is smeared with a 
medicated oil, in the specific influence of 
which the operator has considerable confi- 
dence. This process is continued for a 
shorter or a longer space of time, and, 
according to circumstances, is either suc- 
ceeded or preceded by an extension of the 
capsular ligament of each joint, from the 
larger to the smaller, causing each to crack, 
so as to be distinctly heard, which also suc- 
ceeds from the process being extended to 
each connecting ligament of the vertebre of 
the back and loins. The sensation at the 
moment is far from agreeable, but is suc- 
ceeded by effects not dissimilar to what 
arises from brisk electrical sparks taken from 
the joints in quick succession. 



86 ON VAPOUR BATHj 

This operation upon the articulations of 
the limbs, is much less frequently repeated 
than the other parts of the process of Sham- 
pooing, and in its effects on disease must be 
considered as generally unnecessary and 
often mischievous ; — but this should not be 
said of friction, from which, by ancient usage 
as well as modern experience, we are in- 
structed how much can be derived when 
practised with judgment and patient perse- 
verance : — the Indians, who hold it in high 
estimation as a means of relief from the con- 
sequences of excessive fatigue and from 
unusual bodily exertion, have constant 
recourse to it, and from its soothing effects 
sleep is often induced where the usual means 
f^il. 



FRICTIONj SHAMPOOING, ETC. 87 



CHAPTER VII. 

Friction, by Mr. Pugh — Friction — Percussion — Pulsator, Dr. 
Gower — Simple Means from Improvement in Vapour Batli 
— Application of Vapour Eath — Accession of Disease — 
General Application of Vapour Bath — Productive of Lon- 
gevity — Applicable to great Variety of Disease. 

Some years since a Mr. Pugh, a Surgeon 
in London, practised the art of friction on 
diseased limbs, with considerable success. 
Being a good anatomist, and particularly 
well-informed as to the origin and insertion 
of muscles, his mode of friction was con- 
ducted accordingly, and much advantage 
followed from his practice ; since his time, 
Mr. Grosvenor's plan, as exercised under his 
immediate direction, and pretty generally 
by others agreeably to his mode, has been 
found of the greatest utility, where other 
means failed, or proved only partially useful. 
Many years ago, the practice of percus- 
sion and compression^ for the cure of gout 



88 ON VAPOUR BATH_, 

and rheumatic affections, was brought into 
notice by Admiral Henry, from its efficacy 
upon himself, and from its having been men- 
tioned in the Medical Guide, and Medical 
Spectator, Sir John Sinclair becoming ac- 
quainted with its use, published a pamphlet 
upon the subject. Latterly, this practice is 
actively employed by Dr. Belfour, of Edin- 
burgh, in many other diseases, and report 
speaks most favourably of the result . Under 
this head should be noticed another short 
tract, respecting an instrument which he 
calls a pulsator, written by Dr. Gower, in- 
tended to act on diseased parts by percus- 
sion, and of which, previous to describing 
the instrument, he gives the following judi- 
cious observations : " It has been an esta- 
blished practice, traceable from a period as 
ancient as that of Hippocrates, to give aid 
to such parts of the human body as are en- 
feebled or under suffering, by mechanically 
propelling the too languid circulation of the 
fluids." 



FRICTION, SlIAMPOOINGj ETC. 89 

'' Different nations seem to have employed 
different means for the performance of this 
salutary custom. By a portion of the inha- 
bitants of India, and by some of those who 
dwell in parts of the globe discovered by 
Captain Cook, the principles of the usage 
are maintained by the well-known process 
of shampooing ; and a method nearly similar, 
termed massing, is stated by Dr. Larrey to 
prevail amongst the people of modern 
Egypt. But to trace the practice further 
back, and to an age more polished, and 
more known by the written documents which 
we possess, there is a whole chapter in the 
second book of Celsus, (De Medicina) which 
treats especially upon friction. He men- 
tions, that it is performed ^by the hand,' 
and that inveterate pains of the head are 
mitigated by the friction of it, (yet not 
during their violence ;) and any paralytic 
limb is strengthened by rubbing it. 

'' To adduce a pretty strong proof of the 
high estimation in which this custom was 



90 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

held by Celsus^ he is more than ordinarily 
strenuous in his desire of giving the inven- 
tion to its genuine founder: — his expres- 
sionSj as applied to Asclepiades^ who laid 
claim to the merit of the thing, are — ' Now, 
as it is not fit to defraud the moderns of the 
merit either of their own discoveries or judi- 
cious imitations, so it is but just, at the same 
time, to assign those things which were 
practised among some of the ancients to 
their true authors. 

'' ' It cannot indeed be doubted, that As- 
clepiades has been both fuller and clearer in 
his directions, when and how friction ought 
to be used ; but he has discovered nothing 
which was not comprised in a few words by 
the most ancient author, Hippocrates, who 
said, that friction, if violent, hardens the 
body ; if gentle, softens it ; if plentiful, 
extenuates it; if moderate, increases its 
bulk. From whence it follows, that it is to 
be made use of when a lax body requires to 
be braced; or to soften one that is indu- 



FRICTION;, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 91 

rated ; or to dissipate where fullness is hurt- 
ful ; or to nourish that which is slender and 
infirm.' 

" Close attention to the principles on 
which this ancient practice is founded^ and 
the consideration of the good effects which 
are experienced from its usage in rheumatic 
affections^ have gradually led to the con- 
struction of an instrument whereby the ope- 
ration may be effectually conducted without 
much previous skill. 

" Something more may reasonably be ex- 
pected to arise from the propulsive force of 
an instrument^ than from the action of a 
bare hand. The former partakes of the 
nature of percussion, and can therefore act 
on parts which are deeply seated ; whilst the 
latter is confined to friction alone, and is 
too superficial to remove those pains which 
afflict the under layer of muscles. 

'' And there is a material advantas:e, more- 
over, in the power which is granted to the 
patient, to become his own operator, be- 



93 ON TAPOUR BATH, 

cause he can adjust the precise force which 
he is enabled to bear_, and he can also 
increase the rapidity of the process pro- 
portionate to his sensation of heat^ and to 
the consequent motion of the fluids of the 
affected part. 

'" From the conjoint effects of such an in- 
strument, and of the dry-bath, mentioned in 
the former tract, there is a strong probability 
of relief being afforded to numerous cases, 
which have hitherto failed to yield to baths 
of warm water, to stimulating liniments, and 
to the repetition even of blisters. 

'' As a proper medium to be employed in 
the formation of the pulsator, it has been 
determined to make use of cork, not alone 
on account of the extreme lightness, but 
from the elasticity and less consequent ten- 
dency to irritate. Some difficulty was at 
first experienced in giving that due firmness 
to the handle which the operation required, 
without depriving the cork of its more valu- 
able properties. If the latter had been per- 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 



93 



fo rated for that purpose^ it would have been 
found of too pulverable a nature to admit of 
a steady pressure^ and the effects would have 
been deficient. Upon reflecting, therefore, 
on all the possible methods which could be 
adopted, that one has been selected which is 
here brought before the view of the reader." 

EXPLANATION OF THE SEVERAL PARTS OF THE 
PULSATOR. 




" The letter C is the cork, measuring two inches in 
depth, and manufactured out of the best Spanish mate- 
rials. Its diameter is adapted to the diameter of the 



94 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

brass collar A ; which, being formed of two pieces united 
by a hinge, and terminating in a male screw, is readily 
affixed to its handle, taking the general appearance of the 
letter B.* 

" The handle is made of mahogany, stained black, to 
resemble ebony; it has a ferrule of brass attached to the 
end, near to the cork, in which is a female screw, whereby 
the collar is made to embrace the cork firmly, and to re- 
tain it in its grasp. With the weight of all the parts 
together, those instruments which have been hitherto 
made have rarely exceeded two ounces and a half avoir- 
dupois, and their appearance is extremely neat. 

"Perhaps it may be desirable, by the derear, to be 
informed of the method which was pursued in the forma- 
tion of the instrument after various trials. The diameter 
of a brass collar having been ascertained out of the mass 
of those which were cast in the same mould, an admea- 
surement by callipers was taken, admitting of a trifling 
enlargement beyond the precise calibre of the ring. This 
over-measurement allowed of that nice reduction which 



* One of the most intelligent cork-cutters in the trade, is 
Mr. J. Bucknall, senior, of the firm Bucknall and Sons, No. 5, 
Crutched Friars, London, from whom much information has 
been collected concerning the best mode of forming and polish- 
ing the cork, to adapt it exactly to the brass collar of the 
instrument. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 95 

the adaptation to the collar demanded, leaving, however, 
a full pinch upon the cork ; and this was gradually per- 
formed by a piece of pumice, used after the manner of a 
fine file, which it greatly exceeds in effect, in this case, 
especially when sharpened occasionally by rubbing one 
piece of pumice upon another. 

" To this it will be an improvement to add, that, if a 
small hole be drilled in the brass ferrule, belonging to 
the handle, either for the admission of a rivet, or a deli- 
cate screw, it will keep the handle firm to its duty — 
griping the cork closely, and preventing its getting loose 
at any time." 

APPLICATION OF VAPOUR BATH. 

This digression was requisite previously 
to entering upon the consideration of the 
use of vapour in particular diseases, and it is 
here also necessary to premise, that a clear 
distinction should be made between its 
general effects and that of the warm fluid 
bath, for, although their influence upon ge- 
neral principles may be looked upon as 
pretty similar, yet it should be considered, 
that the specific gravity of the one and the 



W ON VAPOUR BATH, 

other being very different, the results may 
naturally be expected to differ also. 

Under this head, agreeably to the plan of 
this Treatise, the observations must be gene- 
ral, but, at the same time, sufficient to specify 
the danger to be avoided, or the advantages 
to be hoped for, under certain circum- 
stances. 

All direct applications to the surface of 
the body, whether as to quality, temperature, 
or tenuity, have their influence upon the 
two principal functions of animal life, the 
general circulation and nervous vitality ; 
and through this medium, upon the brain, 
stomach, lungs, and viscera. 

In those important organs disease soon 
follows, upon any considerable deviation 
from their well-being, and speedily mani- 
fests itself under one form or another : from 
this painful and distressing feelings soon 
arise, and hence the ancients, with justice, 
designated the organs of sensation the sen- 
tinels of health. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOlNGj ETC. 97 

Prom this view of what arises in the system^ 
Under a direct action on the surface^ we 
become, in a measure, acquainted with what 
commences there, and centers internally. 

This may apply as to healthy or a de- 
viation from it, in which a considerable 
variety of disease may follow from modifica- 
tions of the same cause ; yet each form is so 
allied to another, as to account for so general 
a remedy as the Vapour Bath having a salu- 
tary effect upon each in its distinct character. 

Its action kindly solicits the fluids to the 
surface, and at once frees the circulation, and 
sooths the sensations, so that relief may be 
expected, where a disordered condition of 
either has for any time existed ; for the vital 
organs being but too frequently in a morbid 
state, from unhealthy cutaneous action, it 
may be truly said, that the influence of 
cold in producing disease is not greater 
than that of heat, under the form of vapour„ 
in mitigating and removing its baneful con- 
sequences. 



98 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

By a regular and periodical use of the 
Vapour Bath^ the inroads of time and old 
Sige upon the constitution may be dimi- 
nished^ as they invariably extend from the 
surface to the internal organs of life ; and by 
vapour, as a new power, existence may 
become comfortable, and longevity more 
secure. 

By its proper application, it will be found 
useful and efficacious in those cutaneous com- 
plaints so generally known ,^ and which add to 
the intensity of the other affections with which 
they chance to be conjoined, and from so ex- 
tensive an outlet as that of the skin, are soon 
mitigated ; also, in many of our most formid- 
able chronic diseases, such as gout, in most of 
its varieties, rheumatism, paralytic affections, 
hydropsic complaints, diabetes, female ob- 
gtruetions, scrofula and glandular diseases, 
dysenteria, congestions and obstructions of the 
liver and spleen, occasioning their torpor, and 
the diseases that follow in a connected chain 
with the stomach and alimentary canal ; on 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC, 99 

the condition of which the healthy or un- 
healthy state of the whole animal ceconomy 
has so direct and considerable a dependance, 
and on which the primary efifects of all 
internal remedies must be exercised before 
their influence can be difTlised over the 
general system. 

To the above enumeration we should not 
omit febrile diseases^ under the modifications 
of typhus and intermittents, and certain 
conditions of scarlet fever^ where vital re- 
action is oppressed with disease and consi- 
derable debility ; here^ from the difficulty of* 
moving the patient^ vapour from the spirit- 
lamp will prove most suitable^ as has been 
described in the foregoing part of this 
treatise. 



H 



100 ON VAPOUR BATH, 



CHAPTER VIII. 

l)iseases to which Vapouf Bath is applicable — Caution necessary 
in its Use — Comrhence with Vapour of Low Temperature — 
General Precautions — Time for entering the Vapour Bath — 
General Instructions — Necessary Caution — Application in 
Gout — Salutary Effects in Gout — Gout — Rheumatism — 
Lumbago— Sciatica — Dry Pumping — Alternation of Baths 
— Rheumatism. 

In hypocondriases, epilepsy, tetanus, ne- 
phritic and other diseased conditions of the 
bladder, in hysterical affections, ^nd those 
dependant upon what is termed nervous 
debility, attended with continued or perio- 
dical head-ache, this simple process proves 
useful, by removing congestions, by exciting 
the superficial blood-vessels, and promoting 
excretion and secretion, which are so essen- 
tial to animal existence. Where obstruc- 
tions of the principal viscera exist, from 
which other serious diseases, such, for 
example, as dropsy, indigestion, obstinate 



PRldTlON, SHAMPOOfNC, ETC. lOl 

constipation, irregularity in those functions 
appertaining to females ; jaundice, chronic 
affections of the head and chest, and many 
anomalous complaints, which are difficult 
to classify, great care should be taken to 
ascertain whether local or general bleeding, 
together with purgatives and deobstruents, 
should not precede the active use of the 
Vapour Bath ; for on this subject experience 
has, in many instances, instructed us, that 
much mischief, and considerable danger, has 
arisen from a want of the necessary precau- 
tion ; and a remedy, in itself of very great 
value and importance, has but too often 
suffered in its character, by invalids entering 
upon its use without due consideration and 
circumspection — this observation, in a general 
sense, should be understood with reference 
to almost every case submitted to its in- 
fluence; holding in view, that, as it is a 
powerful means of relief, the discretion ne- 
cessary to its administration should be con- 
siderable. 



102 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

Havino ., in this general consideralion of 
its effects, suggested under that view what 
may be deemed requisite, it remains to par- 
ticularise some complaints in which the 
Vapour Bath has been used with great ad- 
vantage ; but, it may not be unnecessary 
here to state, that, as a small portion of 
vapour is capable of imparting heat in 
considerable quantity, as experimentally ac- 
counted for in a previous part of this Trea- 
tise, we should commence with vapour of a 
lower degree of temperature than that 
required, and admit it into the bath, of a 
heat gradually increasing up to the proper 
standard ; this may extend from 96° to 150°, 
beginning very slowly and with caution ; 
it will thus act as a most agreeable stimulus 
without irritation. 

In full habits, and even where this may 
not be the case, depletion by bleeding, 
cupping, or leeching, can seldom be dis- 
pensed with, where habitual constipation is 
an 9^ttendant upon the disease ; this should 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOIMG, ETC. 103 

be obviated by an appropriate plan, and 
attentively persevered in during the whole 
course of using the bath, and witli it an 
abstemious and regular course of diet. In- 
deed temperance, as to food and wine, must 
be enjoined, early hours attended to, and 
punctuality as to time of meals and exercise 
strictly observed. 

Those who indulge in the luxuries of the 
table, and in more than a very moderate 
quantity of wine, will derive a comparatively 
inconsiderable share of advantage, to what 
may be expected from a different observ- 
ance. 

With respect to the hour of the day or 
night, at which the Vapour Bath may be 
most appropriate, much will depend upon 
the constitution of the person, and upon 
those circumstances of disease for which it 
may be required ; these circumstances are 
so various that general rules must suffice, as 
the particular symptoms of each disease 
would otherwise require endless observation. 



104 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

The general time for entering the bath 
should be about an hour and half before 
dinner, under certain circumstances before 
breakfast, and from fifteen to thirty minutes 
will be a sufficient period for remaining in it. 

When considerable debility is present, and 
when the effect from perspiration is not 
expected or wished to succeed to its use, the 
morning or the afternoon, some time before 
dinner, is the most suitable period, and, in 
this case, it is necessary to commence at a 
low degree of heat, which should be gra- 
dually increased ; this rule also holds good 
where vapour is used as a bath immediately 
before retiring to rest, when perspiration may 
be expected to follow^ and then it may be 
necessary to continue in it for a longer space 
of time than usual. 

Should one of the consequences of using 
the bath at this time be fever, with head-ache, 
restlessness, heat, and thirst, the time for its 
use must be altered, or some previous step 
taken to cause it to act with more salutary 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 105 

influence ; when a flow of perspiration, inmost 
cases, follows, with great facility, in which 
effect it seldom fails ; but, on those occasions, 
an unnecessary quantity of bed-cloaths often 
proves not only uncomfortable, but injurious, 
producing heat, fever, and head-ache ; this 
practice should consequently be avoided. 

During the period of using a course of 
Vapour -bathing, the bowels should be so- 
luble, the diet light and nourishing, and 
early hours carefully attended to. 

On first entering upon the use of the 
Vapour-bath, it may be found to disagree; 
but, by perseverance, this consequence often 
disappears, and, by one modification or 
another, it in general will be found a most 
active means of relief. 

During the winter months, patients should 
be cautious in being cold or chilly imme- 
diately before entering into the bath; to 
obviate which, brisk exercise, for some time 
previously, will serve the best purpose ; on 
the contrary, in the warm season, their 



106 ON VAPOUK BATH^ 

bloody from one cause or another, should not 
be overheated; extremes, under such cir- 
cumstances, but too frequently counteract 
the advantageous consequences that might 
otherwise ensue ; it is proper to observe, 
that it is much more prudent and wise to 
use the necessary precautions against cold 
after an exposure to vapour, than to imme- 
diately hazard any risque. This caution 
applies more to women and children than 
to men, whose constitutions differ so very 
materially from those more delicately formed. 
The Vapour-bath, when favourably applied,, 
occasions the cutaneous glands to throw 
forth, on the surface, whatever foul matter 
may obstruct the free exit of perspiration; 
while, by subsequent ablution with soap 
and warm water instantly applied, the sordes 
are most effectually removed, leaving the 
skin smooth, and its transpiration unim- 
peded ; a sense of comfort and vigour is thus 
imparted, and the vital and animal functions 
performed with strength and energy. 



FKlCTlONj SHAMPOOING, ETC. 107 



GOUT. 



In gouty caseSj of a chronic^ or even recent 
character^ the Vapour-bath^ with few ex- 
ceptions, will prove salutary. 

This disease, with which indigestion and 
obstruction are never unconnected, requires 
great variation in the treatment, according 
to its different stages, and other circum- 
stances, dependant on constitutional pecu- 
liarities; but a most useful adjuvant will be 
found in the Vapour-bath, where those 
means are used which are known to act in 
unison with it. 

With this end in view it is necessary, in 
every case, to attend most particularly to 
the secretion of the liver and kidnies, and 
also to the functions of the intestinal canal^ 
as well as to the degree of symptomatic fever 
existing, choosing with judgment the most 
favourable time for its administration, which, 
in every instance in which chronic inflam- 



108 ON VAPOUR BATHj 

mation exists^ in any viscera,, must be consi- 
dered as highly injudicious. 

Gout is a disease in which^ from the 
variable character it assumes^ and from the 
fatal consequences arising from erroneous 
treatment in the school of quackery^ many 
have been deterred from the use of any 
means of relief, leaving the event to the 
efforts of nature; while others^ when suf- 
fering under excessive pain^ fly to every 
nostrum with indiscriminating temerity ; 
amongst others^ heating carminatives and 
tonics^ conjoined with opiates^ disguised 
under one form or another^ using, at the 
same moment, external applications to those 
painful and inflamed parts, which indicate 
internal and general disease, on which to- 
pical remedies can have no effect, except in 
perverting a salutary solution of the disease, 
or perhaps inducing a sudden and dangerous 
termination, a record of which may never 
reach the public eye, like many similar 
results from the practice of empirics. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 109 

Lord L— — w suffered for many years under 
frequent attacks of gout, and, finding consi- 
derable relief repeatedly from placing his 
feet and legs in cold water, continued to do 
so whenever much pain accompanied the pa- 
roxysm. As he advanced in life, he did not 
discontinue the practice, but used it less often. 

Being upwards of seventy years old, on the 
accession of an attack attended with violent 
pain and inflammation in both feet, he used 
his old remedy, but it induced a diarrhoea 
which terminated his existence. 

In respect to the alleviation or cure of 
gout, both from its history and nature, the 
Vapour-bath may be viewed as an agent 
of great consequence, more particularly when 
internal congestion is previously diminished 
in those of a full habit, or where, in a 
nervous temperament, the morbid appear- 
ance of the tongue and feverish pulse are 
wholly, or in part, removed. 

By warmth, under the form of vapour, 
the action on the skin is so improved, that 



1 10 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

the function of absorption is performed with 
g-reater facility^ and a solution of the pa- 
roxysm so effected^ as to render its recur- 
rence less frequent^ and less in degree ; but^ 
with all this^ a system of temperance must 
be resolutely entered upon^ and as strictly 
adhered to^, otherwise the good to be ex- 
pected from the means w^e speak of, will 
be found to fall far short of our hopes and 
expectations ; and^ under this view^ it has 
not been unaptly observed that^ if gouty 
patients would at times pursue a course of 
abstinence^ equal in continuance to that 
which a gouty fit forces on many^ great 
advantage might be the result, particularly 
in conjunction with suitable remedies. The 
best time of year for putting in practice a 
prophylactic plan of this kind, would be 
at the commencement of the spring and 
autumn ; but at all times, and at all seasons, 
those of a gouty habit should have tempe- 
rance in eating and in drinking, as their 
leading star. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOllJfG, ETC. lit 

Using the Vapour-bath in gouty cases, 
when the stomach is most empty, often 
succeeds, when a different practice proves 
unavailing ; when taken before breakfast^ 
this frequently happens, and, from the 
history of the disease, according to the best- 
received opinions of its character and symp- 
toms, this miglit naturally have been ex- 
pected, was it not that the remains of a 
dangerous and false theory, founded upon 
the humoral pathology, still exists in the 
minds of both patients and practitioners. 

Amongst the few cases that I mean to 
state, to avoid a practice but too common to 
delude and deceive, may be mentioned that 

ofWm. P o, Esq. who, for this disease, 

used ineffectually both warm and Vapour- 
baths, in the evening and at night, for three 
successive seasons, and, by a course of the 
latter, under proper regulation, in the 
morning before breakfast, was effectually 
and I hope permanently relieved. 

In most gouty cases. Vapour from sea- 



112 ON VAPOUR EATH^ 

water is better suited than from fresh water ', 
but^ in many cases of rheumatism, the latter 
answers every good purpose. 

RHEUMATISM. 

This disease is strictly allied to gout^ 
and, although differing in some essential 
symptoms, is also very much mitigated, and^ 
indeed, the habit of the disease removed, 
when, with other means and proper regimen, 
the Vapour-bath is judiciously applied. 

Where it is combined with gout, it gene- 
rally is more intractable than under other 
circumstances ; and, as the use of the lancet 
is often required, the blood will be, (should 
increased vascular action be present,) more 
frequently in what is considered an inflamed 
state, than in gout ; yet this observation 
must be received more in a general 
than in a particular sense ; however, with 
respect to the Vapour-bath, the evacuation 
of blood may be of such essential conse- 
quence, that the advantage from it may 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING, ETC. J l^J 

entirely depend upon this previous step; 
in the acute rheumatism, no advantage can 
be expected until the inflammatory symp- 
toms are, in a great measure, subdued ; and^ 
in no disease, can this desirable end be 
attained with more difficulty. 

Rheumatism, in one respect, and a prin- 
cipal one, difl:ers materially from gout ; in 
the latter, as before observed, internal causes 
are found to have a great share in its pro- 
duction, but J to external causes acting on 
the surface^ and in a secondary manner, on 
the membraneous part of the larger articu- 
lations, and on the fasciae of muscles, are 
we to look for the production of rheumatism ; 
this distinction as to causes is of importance, 
with reference to the treatment of each 
disease, in their different stages. 

In various degrees of Chronic Rheumatism 
the most desirable results have ensued from 
a judicious application of the Vapour-bath^ 
particularly in the common lumbago and 
sciatica^ and, indeed^ it may be looked upon 



Il4 



ON VAPOUR BATH, 



as a means of the very best description^ 
when persisted in with steadiness and judg- 
ment ; but it is a matter of moment^ should 
the wind prevail from the north or north - 
east;, during the time of using it (for the 
relief of this disease or of gout^) to be 
cautious in avoiding the danger of a chill, 
which might not only prevent its good 
effects, but induce an affection of the chest, 
of a tedious and troublesome character. 

A gentleman, affected with a confirmed 
rheumatic complaint of some standing, 
suffered also from symptoms indicating a 
diseased condition of his heart, which occa- 
sioned some hesitation respecting the pro- 
priety of using the Vapour-bath as a means 
of relief, under such circumstances. 

He, however, required that the experi- 
ment should be tried, and both the rheu- 
matic complaint, and the affection of his 
heart, were completely removed by a per- 
severance in its use for some time. 

In aid of this means of relief, the warm 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 115 

Douche, or as a substitute dry pumpingv, 
as it is termed, may immediately precede or 
succeed to its use^ but what in general more 
effectually succeeds is the direction of the 
steam to those parts most affected, under 
the form of a Douche de Vapeur. 

The alternation of a cold sea-water bath, 
succeeding immediately after the warm or 
Vapour bath, in some obstinate rheumatic 
cases^ has proved very useful ; but, although 
this practice is very common in Turkey, and 
in Russia, &c. our present habits of bathing- 
will not, without further experience, suffi- 
ciently warrant its adoption, except where 
the usual means fail, and where some specific 
indication prompts its trial. 

Where this disease affects the back and 
loins, extending along one or both of the 
lower extremities^, the alternate use of the 
warm and Vapour-bath, succeeded by friction 
or shampooing, is often a means of great 
relief, and attended with the happiest re- 
sults. Friction, judiciously applied by the use 
iS 



116 ON VAPOUR BATH;, 

of the flesh-brush, woollen or camel-hair- 
glove, or by the naked hand, for a certain 
time each day, assists considerably in aid of 
the good effects from the bath, which should 
be reiterated day after day, in painful and 
obstinate cases ; and, in those of a more 
common nature, friction is less often re- 
quisite. 



1 RiCTION, SIIAMPO()lN<r, ETC. 117 



CHAPTER IX. 



Paralytic Affections — Paralysis — Rlieuaialism — Painter's Cho- 
lic — Hydropic Diseases — Eleedino^ in Dropsy — Haemorf- 
liage, Dr. Parry — Hydropic Complaints — Diseased Kidneys 
and Bladder — Scrofula — Mesenteric Scrofula — Pulmonic 
Affectiojis — Hip Joint — Glandular Swellings — White Swel- 
lings — In Luxations and Injuries — Cutaneous Diseases — 
Visceral Diseases. 



PARALYTIC AFFECTIONS 

Arise from causes so obscure^ that it is a 
matter of the utmost difficulty^ at times^ to 
form any just opinion of their origin, which, 
however, is not unlike to those producing 
gout and other diseases affecting the extre- 
mities ; and it is a melancholy truth that 
many of these affections, notwithstanding 
every effort to the contrary, prove both tedi- 
ous and obstinate. 

Their pathology, as in the two preceding 
diseases, is such as to authorize the use of 



118 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

the Vapour-bath with a promise of as much 
benefit as from any other remedy^ provided 
the necessary general and local depletion^ 
with suitable regimen^ have been previously 
put in practice. If so^ its salutary action 
upon the skin equalizes the circulation^ and 
often^ in a most admhable manner^ restores 
the suspended nervous functions^ and the 
lost and regular power of muscular action. 

Children, under five years old, are subject 
to a species of paralysis^ which, arising from 
a peculiar state of the alimentary canal, 
sometimes accompanied with worms, pro- 
duces an irregular state of the flexor muscles 
in the hands and arms, and at times renders 
the lower extrem,ities nearly powerless. In 
conjunction with the use of cathartics, and 
an alterative plan, the warm and Vapour- 
bath, under such-like circumstances, assist 
materially towards the removal of the dis- 
ease. 

It should not, however, be disguised, that 
in every species of paralysis, disappointment 



FRICTION;, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 119 

often ensues, notwithstanding the number of 
instances that can be put forth as proofs in 
favour of this remedy, which should be used 
both partially and generally for a long con- 
tinuance, suspending its use at intervals, and 
again and again resuming its application, 
while any promise of amendment remains. 

In the case of M. Spicer, of this town, 
aged 34, the lower extremities continued 
paralized for many months — an enlargement 
and induration of her liver was perceptible 
on examination. 

The latter was removed by the influence 
of mercury and purgatives; and, subse- 
quently, the paralytic affection of her limbs 
was totally removed — in this case, the Va- 
pour-bath was not used. 

External causes, as those arising from the 
fumes of lead;, mercury, &c. &c. to which 
manufacturers in those metals are exposed, 
induce paralysis of the alimentary canal, 
under the form of what is called the painter's 
cholic, which is often followed by irregula- 



D^U ON VAPOUR BATH, 

rity in the voluntary action, or total depri- 
vation of muscular povs^er in different parts 
of the body ; — manifesting., under a morbid 
condition, that sympathetic and wonderful 
connection existing between the secretions 
on the surface, and in the interior, and their 
reciprocity of action. 

In these cases, the Vapour-bath often suc- 
ceeds in the happiest manner, and is very 
rnuch aided by the alternate influence of 
electricity ; at the same time requiring ap- 
pi"opriate medicine, regularity of the bowels, 
and a careful attention to regimen and diet. 

UYDROPIC DISEASES. 

Under this head, a great variety are 
included, which admit of no general mode of 
treatment, but requiring the action of reme- 
dies according to their causes and circum- 
stances. 

The causes are manifold, and those of the 
most serious consideration have their origin 



FRICTION;, SDAMI'OOiNG, ETC. 121 

ill inilammation^ obstruction^ and what is 
technically termed congestion of some inter- 
nal organ^ on which the well-being of ani- 
mal life depends. 

From all this^ it must be inferred^ that to 
presume upon a favourable result and per- 
manent relief from the Vapour-bath in these 
diseases, considerable pains should previ- 
ously be taken to strike at the root of the 
evil. 

More than twenty years since. Dr. Rush, 
of Philadelphia, used blood-letting in many 
cases of dropsy successfully, and on previ- 
viously just conclusions ; and, since then. 
Dr. Blackball has given further strength to 
the practice, which has been exercised by 
many with similar results ; among the num- 
ber, the author of this statement has had 
strong practical proofs, in many cases, of its 
excellent effects. 

The Reverend Mr. H. n, aged 26, 

laboured under general anasaria to a consi- 
derable extent. In concert with his sur- 



122 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

geoHj Mr. Verral;, of Seaford^ it was deter- 
mined upon, that venesection should be 
freely used — it was repeated again and 
again, and we soon after had the satisfaction 
of witnessing a complete recovery. 

In the commencement of these diseases, 
an increased momentum of blood can gene- 
rally be traced, preceding the hydropic symp- 
toms ; and Dr. Parry has, with great per- 
spicuity, in his Elements of Pathology, 
proved the connection, and the conse- 
quences. 

Speaking of haemorrhage, and its alternat- 
ing with dropsy, he says, " Were any thing 
wanting to prove the vicarious relation of 
dropsy and haemorrhage, sufficient proof 
might be found in the fact which I have 
more than once witnessed, of violent, long- 
continued, and most extensive anasaria, 
immediately, completely, and permanently 
cured, by spontaneous haemorrhage ;" — such 
are the efforts made by nature, where the 
functions of life are clogged and impeded. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 123 

and such are the lessons from which science 
and art derive instruction. 

Under the head of dropsical diseases, it 
naay here be added, that after necessary 
topical evacuation of blood during the com- 
mencement of hydrocephalus, and the other 
customary means, the Vapour-bath may be 
used with safety and probable advantage, 
fi'om its influence on febrile action, and in 
promoting absorption and secretion; — on 
this principle, in all hydropic complaints, it 
will be found a most powerful adjuvant in 
promoting the salutary powers of diuretics, 
purgatives, &c. ; and in giving an active 
effect to mercurial preparations. 

Where exercise is admissible, or rather 
practicable, in hydropic complaints, it should 
be taken to as great an extent as the case 
will admit of, particularly previously to the 
use of each bath, and for some time after, 
except the weather will not permit ; — this is 
enjoined for obvious reasons, but more par- 
ticularly with a view towards the salutary 
action of the absorbent system. 



124 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

Diseases of the kidneys and bladder may be 
considered more as symptomatic of gout, 
rheumatism, paralysis, &c. &c. than as mor- 
bid conditions of an idiopathic character, 
and if found referable to any of these heads, 
should be treated accordingly. 

Where the seat of the disease is in the 
kidneys, and inflammation existing, or where 
this takes place in the bladder, general and 
topical bleeding, to a great extent, must be 
practised before any expectation of advan- 
tage can be entertained from either the 
warm or Vapour-bath. 

In chronic diseases of these important 
organs, the Vapour-bath affords very great 
relief; — its action on the skin generally 
inducing by sympathy a favourable change 
in the secretion of the mucous membrane, 
and assisting towards the restoration of the 
natural and healthy function, deviations from 
which are the cause of the diseases termed 
stone and gravel, with their various appear- 
ances and modifications. 

In that formidable and painful disease to 



FfJlCTIOK, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 125 

which is given the name catarrhus visicae, in 
which a diseased prostate gland but too 
often participates, and in which the urine 
abounds with a purulent mucous admixture, 
causing a most constant desire to pass water, 
the Vapour-bath has afforded most particu- 
lar and permanent relief, to the comfort of 
the patient, and often to the astonishment of 
the practitioner. 

Mr. M n had used mercurial prepara- 
tions to excess, and his urine became loaded 
with purulent rriucous, accompanied with 
pain in voiding it ; under the hands of a 
junior practitioner, he continued using mer- 
cury from a supposition that his disease had 
extended to his bladder. 

On ceasing from its use, betaking himself 
to a change of air, and using warm bathing, 
he was soon restored. 

SCROFULA. 

Scrofulous diseases of the head, of the 
lungs, of the mesentery, of the joints, and of 



126 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

the spine^ with all the shades of this varying- 
and perplexing disorder, are so formidable, 
and so obstinate, that we seek with avidity 
for any promise of relief, especially as the 
subjects of attack are frequently the most 
interesting, most beautiful, and most marked 
for acuteness of intellect and sweetness of 
disposition, that can be found among our 
youth of either sex. 

There are stages of scrofula in which, at 
times, the cold bath, at others the warm bath, 
and certain conditions of the disease, when 
the influence from warm vapour, judiciously 
applied, will prove more appropriate ; cir- 
cumstances under one form will forbid what 
may be proper under another, and with 
reference to the bath, whether cold, warm, 
or vapour, it requires much judgment and 
experience to fix upon what may be most 
suitable. 

During the existence of tumefaction of the 
abdomen, whether arising from mesenteric 
disease, or from obstructed viscera, means of 



FRICTIONj SHAMPOOING, ETC. 127 

subduing' these symptoms should be tried^ 
prior to the use of the Vapour-bath, or in 
conjunction with it, alternating with that or 
the warm bath, when either of these diseases 
undergoes some diminution. 

As in some degree connected with diseases 
of this character, a very painful chronic 
affection of the abdomen should be men- 
tioned, on which Dr. Baron, of Gloucester, 
has written with great perspicuity ; he traces 
its organ to hydatids, and, from insidious 
and imperceptible degrees, it at length 
becomes both painful and intractable, the 
abdomen assuming the appearance of a solid 
tumor, which is to be distinguished from 
mesenteric obstruction by a sensation of 
broiling heat, in addition to violent pain. 

Symptomatic fever, great thirst, unusual 
emaciation and obstruction, closing the 
channels of nutrition, terminate a disease 
generally fatal. 

After death, " on opening the belly, it was 
found that the whole of its contents adhered 



12S ON VAPOUR BATII^ 

to each othei% and to the cavity, in sucli a 
manner as to form apparently one solid 
mass/' 

The ambiguity that at one time attached 
to the Vapour-hath in pulmonic affections, 
is much less than formerly, and cautiously 
applied, it will be found of great utility ; 
but where there exists much symptomatic 
fever, or inflammatory action, it should not 
be used, or at least great circumspection 
is required in its administration ; indeed, 
there are particular circumstances in scrofula, 
with reference to the tender texture of the 
lungs, that directly interdict its use. 

It may here, however, be observed, that 
in pulmonic affections, where vapour from 
sea-water and sea-air do not prove advan- 
tageous, vapour from simple water, or 
medicated vapour, often answers the desired 
purpose. 

In scrofula affecting the hip-joint ; where 
the first symptoms of that formidable disease 
have shewn themselves, and where the inci- 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 129 

J)ient inflammation is not subdued, the 
Vapour-bath should be withheld ; but where, 
after the necessary remedies have proved 
effectual in preventing the inflammatory 
action from running into suppuration, and 
have produced a quiescent state for a time, the 
Vapour-bath can be relied upon as a means of 
the greatest utility in completing the cure. 

In glandular swellings, whether in a state 
of ulceration or not, the good effects succeed- 
ing to the general and topical application of 
the Vapour-bath, are often very remark- 
able, after the failure of a regular course 
of cold and warm bathing ; this happens 
but too frequently in those obstinate 
strumous tumifications of the knee and 
other larger joints, called white swellings ; 
in such cases, however, the state of the 
bowels, and digestion^ will generally be 
found irregular, a matter of great consequence 
to be attended to while any hopes of relief 
are entertained from the usual means, in 
conjunction with the bath. 

In debility, as a consequence of luxation^, 
and ill other injuries affecting the tendons 



130 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

and ligaments of the joints^ from guil-shot 
wounds^ contusions^ dislocations^ &c. the 
Vapour-bath is a remedy, on which great 
dependence can be placed, and which, in a 
number of instances, has succeeded, where 
other modes of treatment have failed. The 
waters of Bareges owe their celebrity, in 
similar cases, to their proper administration, 
and there are not facts wanting, in this 
country, where factitious baths of these 
waters have proved most salutary ; it is, 
however, to be remarked, that in all cases 
of this character, vapour should be used 
generally, as well as topically, to command 
the full effects to be hoped for, and, in most 
instances, should be persevered in, for a long 
while, as in all injuries affecting the tendons 
or ligaments, this remedy is slow in its 
effects, and general constitutional influence 
is necessary, conjointly with local means. 

Either the warm Douche, or Douche de 
Vapour, under certain regulations in those 
cases, is a remedy of the first importance ; 
but the injunctions for its appropriate ap- 



FRICTION;, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 131 

plication^ as expressed by Monsieur Le Bruii, 
who wrote upon the efficacy of the waters of 
Bareges, should be attended to : "' Son usage 
est aussi salutaire qu' ancien ; on ne laisse 
pas neaninoins de la prendre souvant mal a- 
propos, quoiqu'on doive essentiellement se 
precautionner sur les differens degnes de 
chaleur et les proportionner a la disposition 
de la partie infirme^ qu'on prenne done 
garde de la recevoir sans s'assurer du trop, 
ou du trop peu de chaleur qu'elle pent avoir. 
Ce ne pas ici une remarque inutile^, puisqu'il 
arrive souvent que si la douche est trop 
chaude du commencement qu'on en use, 
elle rend les maux si rebelles qu'ils ne cedent 
a aucun remede dans la suite." 

CUTANEOUS DISEASES. 

Diseases of this description are very nu- 
merous, and their varieties considerable ; 
many have their origin in constitutional 
complaints, while some few are strictly 
confined primarily to the skin, imparting, 
in a secondary manner, unhealthy action to 
k3 



132 ON VAPOUll BATH, 

the general habit; — the common itch may 
serve as an example. Of these many, where 
the cold bath has no good effect, and where 
the hot bath is not of sufficient power, the 
Vapour-bath will be fovmd to succeed. 

The sulphurated Vapour-bath frequently 
proves efficacious in obstinate diseases of the 
skin, while others, which have resisted dif- 
ferent modes of treatment, have given way 
to the influence of mercurial fumigation 
judiciously administered ; indeed, vapour, 
from either of the two last-mentioned sub- 
stances, requires experience and judgment 
in its selection and application, but, as par- 
ticular instruction cannot be given in so 
limited a space, it may be generally under- 
stood and confided in, that medicated vapour, 
impregnated with one substance or another, 
and appropriately used, will prove of most 
essential utility in the various species of 
cutaneous complaints. 

" During the period that Colonel M'K y 

successfully used the Vapour-bath for a long- 
continued rheumatic complaint, his friend. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING;, ETC. 13.S 

General L s, who accompanied him to 

Brighton^ as much for experiment as amuse- 
ment, subjected himself to a few Vapour- 
bathsj and was conscious that his health 
was much improved ; but, without expecting 
any such result, found that an ulcerated leg, 
which he had from the time of the American 
war, became better and better daily, and 
was at length perfectly healed, solely from 
this means. 

- Where the stomach, the intestines, the 
liver, the spleen, the pancreas, &c. are par- 
tially or generally in a morbid condition, 
accompanied with cuticular eruptions, due 
attention should be paid to these circum- 
stances, (with a view towards their amend- 
ment,) either previously to, or in conjunction 
with the use of vapour fumigation under any 
form whatever, otherwise little hope can be 
entertained of a complete removal of the 
disease on the surface, which will be founds 
in nine cases out of ten, symptomatic of 
some visceral complaint. In many of these 
cases, where a warm sea-water fluid bath 



134 ON VAPOUR liATH^ 

is foLind to irritate the eruption, no such 
consequence follows the Vapour-bath of sea 
or simple water. 

Impure diseases, of long continuance, 
connected with the consequences of an 
irregular or improper use of mercurial 
preparations, are but too often found both 
obstinate and perplexing, and in some, 
where the periosteum is affected with in- 
flammation and pain, it proves most efficient. 

There are few circumstances of disease 
requiring more serious consideration, and 
more discrimination in withholding, or in 
administering the usual remedies ; but, 
among these, medicated vapour, under one 
form or another, seldom fails of affording 
relief, and acts in aid of other means, when 
exhibited at the same time ; indeed, many 
practitioners consider vapour, (when of a suit- 
able kind), as specific in a number of cutane- 
ous diseases, strictly so denominated, more 
particularly in what is commonly called the 
ring-worm; but its application should be 
reiterated until no vestige remains. 



FRICTlONj SHAMPOOING, ETC, 135 



CHAPTER X. 

Suspended Animation — Insanity — Mercurial Disease — Fever 
—Intermittent and Scarlet Fever. 

SUSPENDED ANIMATION. 

In cases of suspended animation, from 
drowning- or other causes, it most generally 
happens that instantaneous means are not 
at hand to apply heat in the necessary 
degree. 

Vapour, from a very small quantity of 
boiling-water, conveyed from the spout of a 
tea-kettle, under a thick blanket, previously 
heated, the body being placed on a table 
near to the fire on which the kettle rests, 
may, by a little dexterity, be made to diffuse 
a very considerable degree of heat in a short 
time ; fomentations from flannels, wrung 
from hot water, applied to the abdomen and 
stomach, around the thorax, and particu- 
larly over the region of the heart, will at 



136 ON VAPOUR BATHj 

the same time prove of great ose^ or the 
application of heat in the manner directed 
in page 75, the effect from v^^hich is more 
permanent ; in this manner the local and 
general influence of vapour^ of a high tem- 
perature^ are consentaneously brought into 
action. 

In such cases, vapour from a spirit lamp, 
as described in pa^e 77, aided by friction and 
the usual efforts, as directed by the Humane 
Society, must be had recourse to. 

INSANITY. 

The causes producing insanity are very 
numerous, and its degrees and species are 
manifold, which will, in a measure, account 
for the various means of relief that are said 
to be effectual ; and hence the cold, tepid, 
warm, and Vapour-bath have, in their turn, 
been put to the test. 

Generally speaking, the warm and Vapour- 
bath have succeeded as the best auxiliaries 
to remedies used in those cases ; but the 
vapour having greater power, in some in- 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 137 

stances^, will prove effectual where the others 
fail. 

Insane patients exposed to vapour should 
have their hands secured in proper gloves, 
or by the usual strait-waistcoat, and then 
placed in a chair, but their feet not allowed 
to be near the floor ; this plan effectually 
prevents all violent motion. 

Sudden alternations, with respect to the 
cold and warm bath, are effectually ob- 
tained, and in a more prompt manner by a 
quick and immediate use of the shower- 
bath, before or after exposure to heated 
vapour, than by immersion ; and, in cases of 
insanity, and other formidable diseases, to 
which this practice may be deemed appli- 
cable, it should be preferred, more parti- 
cularly as commencing so active a mode of 
cure ; it must, however^ be confessed that, in 
these cases, every species of bath has been 
but too often found ineffectual. 

The shower being placed immediately 
over the patient while exposed to the vapour. 



138 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

may be applied instantly^ and with sudden 
effect^ which often proves salutary in com- 
plaints classed under the head of nervous 
affections. 

In a recent case^ where a delicate lady 
used the Vapour-bath, as a means for the 
removal of a chronic head-ache, by pulling 
the crank of the shower-bath immediately 
above her head, in mistake for the bell-pull, 
the shock and surprise was so great as to 
cause a beneficial effect ; and, by it, her 
complaint was very nearly removed. 

MERCURIAL DISEASE. 

It is one of the most happy results of our 
present experience, that the occurrence of 
this dreadful evil becomes less and less every 
day, and that a better knowledge of the 
administration of mercurial preparations at 
this moment pervades every department of 
medical practice, than had existed for years 
previously. 

The consequences of errors on this subject 



FRICTION^ SHAMPOOING, ETC. 189 

arose from a most unaccountable and ge- 
neral opinion, that the administration of 
mercury was the department solely of the 
surgeon, and hence its use was freely 
exercised by many juniors in the profession, 
to the exclusion of the more aged and ex- 
perienced ; this error has had, in its train, 
misery that we may presume will never 
again be witnessed. 

In the mercurial disease, so called, and 
in inordinate ptyalism, accompanied with 
other distressing consequences, arising from 
the rash and ungarded administration of 
mercury, its consequences are rendered less 
irritating, and the deleterious effects pro- 
ducing it very much mitigated, by a judi- 
cious use of the Vapour-bath ; particularly 
in conjunction with the other means used 
under such-like circumstances, its action 
seems principally upon the absorbent system, 
and by promoting secretion, to diminish the 
diseased action, so that, whether the patient 
is tortured with those most painful ulcera- 



140 ON VAPOUR BATH^ 

tions^ which are peculiar to the disease, — 
nodes^ exostosis, and night-pains, along the 
course of the cylindrical bones, vapour, 
under the form of bath, and persevered in for 
a necessary time, is often attended with 
salutary results ; these, however, do not 
usually follow its immediate use, and a 
cautious vigilance as to its effects, in the 
first instance, with due perseverance after, 
are required to secure success. 

FEVER 

To equalise the irregular distribution of 
blood, which in fever occasions such painful 
and dangerous symptoms, either from its 
unusual determination to the head, liver, 
or to any of those organs of life, on the 
well-being of which so much depends, is an 
object in the management of diseases of this 
description, of considerable moment. The 
irregular application of the Vapour-bath 
among savage nations, and under an im- 
proved form in our modern practice, proves 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. \4[ 

how numerous and how advantageous are 
the results from its salutary action on the 
skin, and its soothing effects upon the 
nervous system. 

Its combined or alternate application in 
intefmittents, in scarlet and typhus fever, 
under their various stages, will be found an 
auxiliary of no small utility in the hands of 
a judicious practitioner — judicious, I say, for 
the appropriate application of heated vapour, 
warm bath, or cold effusion, requires discri- 
mination and judgment, in respect to their 
selection, as suited to the symptoms under 
which they may be indicated. 

Where this happens, in respect to the 
Vapour-bath, its powers over febrile action, 
by promoting the free discharge of per- 
spirable matter from the surface, are of the 
greatest consequence, even in fevers of the 
worst character, and particularly in those 
incident to warm climates, where its effects 
calm and assuage the most urgent symptoms ; 
this effect also follows from its use in cases 



142 ON VAPOUR BATHj 

of typhus^ and under the worse condition of 
scarlet fever^ where the surface of the body 
and the mucous membrane of the trachia 
are, at one and the same moment, under its 
salutary influence. 

Under the symptoms of hectic fever, there 
is but little promise of relief from either the 
warm or Vapour-bath, in as far as practical 
experience warrants the observation ; and, 
notwithstanding the once sanguine expecta- 
tion of Dr. Beddoes upon this subject, but 
little hope should be placed upon the effects 
from either, where this symptomatic disease 
is confirmed in its dreadful character. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 143 



CHAPTER XI. 



CONCLUSION. 



After enumerating the variety of natural 
sources from which vapour is obtained, and 
the local modes of applying it, together 
with those effects which have caused this 
remedy to become gradually more and 
more general, from times far remote up to 
the present period ; the artificial means of 
its application in disease, in this and in 
different countries, have been particularized 
and shewn to be productive of nearly equal 
benefit as in cases submitted to vapour 
naturally produced, in situations where their 
repute has been deservedly great and ex- 
tensive. 

In this enumeration, the usual practical 
application of vapour in Russia, Sweden^ 



144 ON VAPOUR BATHj 

Finland^ Spaiii^ France^ Italy ^ Turkey ^ 
Persia^ Egypt^ South America, India, &c. 
&c. has been severally observed upon, and, 
from this species of historical detail, a de- 
duction has been fairly drawn, of its very 
general and practical utility, not only as a 
means of relief in disease, but as a practice 
replete with advantage in respect to the 
health, luxury, and comfort of most nations 
where it is used, from the most savage people 
to those of more refined and cultivated cha- 
racter ; and as, in many essential particulars, 
it differs from the warm-bath, where the 
distinction is considerable, it has been 
pointed out, in order that its application as 
a curative means in disease may be made 
upon fixed principles, and not as hitherto 
used upon the uncertain and often erroneous 
grounds of hearsay evidence, as to practical 
facts and successful cases, without suffi- 
ciently pointing out where its use has been 
followed by injurious consequences or dis- 
appointment. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 145 

But, had the subject been more divided 
in detail, and under each specific head, 
circumstances more minutely considered, 
the extent of a work intended, in a degree, 
to be of a condensed and circumscribed 
character, would have increased out of 
proportion, and become of less interest and 
more tedious; hence^ also, the insertion of 
many cases, as illustrative of the good effects 
of the Vapour-bath, has been carefully 
withheld, from knowing that more than 
enough have already been placed before 
the public ; and, with the intention of pre- 
venting empiricism^ and to avoid confusion 
and dangerous misconception. 

After the view taken of Baths in general, 
in the countries already mentioned, it has 
been deemed appropriate to the subject 
to consider the relative nature of the warm 
and Vapour-bath, as artificially prepared, 
so as to imitate what are naturally produced. 
The density of the former, in respect to the 
latter, has been shewn to be considerable. 



146 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

and this circumstance alone^ pointed out as 
serving, in many cases, to account for con- 
sequences arising from the one or from the 
other, in their effects upon the functions of 
human life, and on those functions when 
inefficiently performed, or under a state of 
disease. 

As immediately connected with this part 
of the subject, the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere upon the surface of our bodies, 
together with its weight and elasticity^ have 
been taken into the account, in order that 
the variations, occasioned by the changes 
that occur, from time to time, under dif- 
ferent degrees of that pressure, may be the 
more satisfactorily accounted for. 

From the aggregate of these facts, and 
the comparative tenuity of heated air and 
vapour in a high degree of expansion, 
sufficient evidence is given to shew why 
immersing the human body in either, 
subjects it to the influence of heat through 
the agency of a rarified medium, which 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 147 

extends itself not only over the surface, but 
also at the same instant to the internal 
surface of the lungs, and imparts it with 
freedom and celerity. 

This last fact accounts for the powers of a 
Vapour -bath being greater, in almost every 
instance, than that of the fluid-bath, and is 
given as a reason for greater prudence and 
caution being necessary in its use, as a 
remedy for disease ; it may also serve as a 
reason why the fluid-bath should precede 
the use of the other as preparatory to its 
more safe and efficacious administration ; 
the quantum of heat necessary to fonn 
vapour being most considerable in compa- 
rison of what may be required to heat water 
for the purpose of an ordinary fluid-bath. 

The application of vapour, as a bath, to 
the condition of disease, is next considered ; 
and that grand sympathetic connection that 
exists in animal life, between the healthy 
state of the skin, and that of the viscera and 
internal, organs of life, passed under review, 
l2 



148 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

This leads to favourable results in respect 
to this remedy, as administered under one 
form or another, and indicates the advan- 
tages to be hoped for, and the inconvenience 
to be guarded against, by the general and 
topical evacuation of blood, and the admi- 
nistration of purgatives, so as to render the 
state of the stomach and alimentary canal 
suitable to the mode of applying this re- 
medy, under whatever indication it may 
be directed. 

As few diseases affect the human frame 
without the important functions of the skin 
becoming more or less concerned, it may 
be argued that this single fact should, in a 
degree, serve to account for its general 
applicability, as remedial in most diseases, 
but more particularly in those taken notice 
of in the foregoing part of this Treatise, such 
as gout, rheumatism, paraly ij^, hydropic dis- 
eases, scrofula, painters' cholic, diseases of 
the kidney and bladder, glandular swellings, 
injuries from luxations, cutaneous diseases. 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 149 

suspended animation from drowning-, or 
other causes, insanity, mercurial disease, 
typhus, scarlet and intermittent fever, &c. 

A proper knowledge of its use, under any 
variety of these complaints, will lead to 
its more diversified application, in cases not 
particularly specified ; but, as no active 
remedy can be said to be at all times exempt 
from disagreeable consequences, so it is 
with the Vapour-bath ; but, in order to secure 
from it a successful issue, a general rule 
should hold good, that the state of the 
head, the chest, and the bowels, should be 
well ascertained ; and, as far as possible, all 
objectionable circumstances removed. 

The following views of the nature of 
steam, agreeably to the philosophical and 
ingenious system of Sir Richard Phillips, 
to whom I am indebted for this short ab- 
stract, may illustrate the modus operandi of 
the action of vapour, a subject hitherto 
involved in great obscurity. 

'' Aqueous steam is atoms of water, or of 



150 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

the bases of water in a state of mechanical 
separation, caused by motions that have 
been imparted to them, which motions 
bear the general name of heat ; for heat 
arises from atoms in intense motion parting 
with their motion. 

'" This atomic excitement called heat, is 
applied to the water, and the atoms being 
already separated by those gaseous inter- 
stices which constitute fluidity, they become 
ready patients of the excitements, and 
evolve or radiate into the adjoining space. 

'' But, as that space is already full of 
atoms, in the form of aerial gas, these atoms 
of air deflect the newly-evolved atoms of the 
water, till continued deflections turn and 
maintain them in circular orbits ; while these 
again deflect others as they arise, till the space 
is filled with them in their revolving orbits. 

'' Of course, as each endeavours to go off 
in a tangent, the orbits, or the space or spaces 
which the atoms thus fill, is, as the original 
excitement ; foH the orbits are created by a 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 151 

definite reaction of atoms of air^ and they 
therefore vary as the original action or heat, 
of which the atoms are the patients. 

'' The energy of the steam depends, how- 
ever, on its confinement ; for the energy is 
merely reaction, and, if there is no solid 
boundary, or the aerial gas yields, then the 
reaction or compression is diminished, and 
not greater than that of the aerial gas itself. 

'' At the same time, as the atoms of the 
air press with an energy of fifteen pounds to 
the square inch, and this action precedes the 
reaction, there may be a slight increase of 
pressure, but not sufficient to cause a perme- 
ation of solid bodies placed within the steam. 

'' If compression or confinement is com- 
plete, then the pressure, being as the excite- 
ment, may be raised by continuity of action 
a-nd constant acceleration of momenta to very 
high degrees of force, as we witness in 
gaseous explosions, which arise from the 
atoms being one and ail excited into orbits 
larger than the space will contain. 



152 ON VAPOUR BATH, 

■ " But, before an explosion takes place, 
every permeable body, within the confined 
aqueous gas, will become saturated with 
its atoms and its action, and thus timbers 
are rendered pliable, meat boiled, &c. 

" The effect on the human body seems to 
consist in the increased action of the atoms 
on the surface of the skin, and in a slight 
degree of permeation ; while, as the aqueous 
atoms occupy the space, without filling it, 
with their substances, there are interstices, or 
vacuums, between them, which permit an 
increased radiation or perspiration from 
the pores of the skin. Hence, as the excite- 
ment proceeds, the temperature diminishes, 
till at length the vacuities of highly-excited 
gas create even a sense of extreme coldness, 
by the rapid perspiration which they admit. 
We, therefore, are enabled, by means of 
aqueous gas, to apply to the skin a high de- 
gree of excitement, without the inconvenience 
of a corresponding degree of diflfused heat. 

" Of course, any body or substance, which 



FRICTION,, SHAMPOOING, ETC. 153 

takes off or receives tiie inomeiita of the 
orbit-describing" atoms, refixes them and they 
return to water. 

'•' Gas, of every kind, is formed and exists 
in like manner, and hence there is momentum 
or power wherever there is gas ; and the 
refixing of certain portions of aerial g-as 
by inspiration imparts the momenta of the 
atoms to the animal, and hence animal heat, 
strength, energ)', and life; hence, also, 
combustion, and an infinite number and 
variety of other important phenomena. 

''' Water is so readily converted into steam, 
by the want of cohesion or division of its 
atoms, that the resulting g-as is simple ; and 
the atoms are unmixed and uncombined, like 
those of gases created from bodies which 
require gi^eater and longer excitement. 
Hence it may, in common parlance, be said 
to be coarser gas, and thus its interstices, 
and peculiar effects on the skin. But, if 
other bodies or fluids are mingled with it, 
and they are raised into gas together, the 



154 ON VAPOUR BATM^ 

results may be varied^ and either improved or 
deteriorated, as may appear by experiment. 
Thus the interstices may be filled up, and 
the perspiration be less^, or a chemical cha- 
racter may be conferred, in harmony or 
discordance with the natural chemical 
action of the body placed within the hetero- 
geneous gaseous compound. 

'' Improved views of electrical and galva- 
nic excitement accord with the known effects 
of chemical agents applied to the skin. 
Those views suggest, that, as oxygen is fixed 
at the lungs of animals, a correlative action 
of nitrooren is demanded at the surface of the 
skin ; and hence an animal is a galvanic com- 
bination subject to a constant galvanic action. 
We thus comprehend the reason why inflam- 
mable substances applied to the skin in- 
crease the action, and cure its injuries and 
diseases. We thus understand, also, the 
mode by which nitrogen incorporates with 
animal substance, and discover, in the same 
two-fold action, the cause of the changes in 



FRICTION, SHAMPOOING^ ETC. 155 

the colour of tlu; blood. Steam appears^ 
therefore^ to be a convenient vehicle for 
bringing- chemical agents into contact with 
the skin, and for varying the natural galva- 
nic action of the system." 

FINIS . 



DESCRIPTION OF THE VAPOUR BATH^ AS USED 
AT BRIGHTON. 

(See Frontispiece.) 

A hollow space on the floor of the bathing apartment, 
the sides and bottom being of solid plank, is interposed, 
for the immediate reception of the vapour. 

This is of an oval form, having its upper surface of strong 
wicker-work ; — on this the patient is seated upon a chair 
or stool, with wicker-work bottom. 

The frame consists of six wooden pillars, resting on the 
circumference of the plane of the wicker-work, and, upon 
the upper edge of the sides of the enclosed space : — 

The pillars support a canopy of six curved ribs, meet- 
ing at a small circle at top, which serves as a space for a 
valve to permit the exit of vapour, when its temperature 
may require to be lowered, or the respirable quality of the 
air to be renewed. 



156 DESCRIPTION OF VAPOUR BATH. 

The frame is covered over with a thick white woollen 
cloth, so manufactured as to be as impervious to steam 
as possible, which completely retains the vapour. 

On the side of this thick covering, are openings for the 
purpose of allowing the patient to respire freely the air of 
the apartment, or to admit of the attendants introducing 
the hand or flesh brush, should friction be required while 
the patient is under the influence of the vapour. 

A tube for conveying the vapour from the boiler, 
enters the hollow space on which the frame-work rests, 
and is provided with a stop-cock, by which the admission 
or exclusion of the vapour is under controul. 
. The boiler with a safety-valve should be of good 
strength, and placed in a separate apartment beneath 
that in which the bath is used, where also the conve- 
nience of a shower and warm fluid bath should be at 
hand, in order that the alternation of the one or the other 
may be used at pleasure. 

Plate I, Fig. I. the hollow space a a a a. Fig. II. 
B B B B, the wicker-work, on the frame of which, at aa a a, 
the pillars c c c c. Fig. I. rest. 

The curved ribs n d d d of the canopy meet at the 
circle e, the space for the valve — f the stop-cock — g 
the stool on which the patient sits, as marked on the 
plane of the wicker-work in Fig. II. 



W. LEWIS, PRINTER, FINCH-LANE, LONDON^ 



4 



APPENDIX 



NEW EDITION, 



In the foregoing pages some pains have 
been taken to impress the necessity of 
caution upon invalids, who are about to 
submit to the Vapour-bath, in order that 
mischief may not arise from its powers in the 
outset. 

From constant experience since the first 
appearance of this essay up to the present 
moment, many instances in which abuses 
of a most obvious nature on this score 
have occurred, and for the reputation of 
the remedy, I am sorry to say, are still 
occurring daily, from a defect of informa- 
tion as to its effects. Therefore, holding 

M 



158 APPENDIX, 

in view its being a means of relief not to 
be entered upon without due consideration, 
it cannot be too frequently observed, nor 
too anxiously impressed upon those who 
use it, that its direct, and indirect influ- 
ence upon the functions of animal life, are 
so powerful, in comparison of that of the 
warm fluid bath, that the greatest circum- 
spection with respect to constitutional pecu- 
liarity, or obscurity as to the symptoms and 
nature of disease, should be used previously 
to commencing. 

Cases of an ambiguous character and 
unusual obstinacy, present themselves more 
and more frequently for the test of trial, to 
any remedy which, from merit or popular 
opinion, has gained general reputation ; and 
this consequently must occasion from time 
to time misapplication, and often an unsuc- 
cessful issue; for even acting under due 
deliberation on this point, hope and ex- 
pectation are too often alive, but to meet 
with disappointment. 

From repeated and accurate experiments 
it has been shewn, that it requires a much 
greater quantum and degree of heat to 



APPENDIX. 159 

reduce water into a state of vapour, than 
could have previously been supposed, and 
from water in a vapourific state, that this 
heat is imparted to surrounding bodies of 
a lower temperature with great rapidity. 

This fact will be found to be of primary 
importance, where we have to apply heated 
vapour as a curative means in disease; for 
even vapour at a low temperature is capable 
of imparting heat in a most considerable 
degree, and if not properly and gradually 
modified, may produce effects the reverse of 
what we require. 

This is more fully pointed out in page 
31, where an endeavour is made to explain, 
that, as the medium through which heat is 
communicated in using a Vapour-bath, is 
so much less dense than that of a watery 
fluid, whether of pure or salt-water, the pres- 
sure on the whole of the external surface 
must necessarily be proporfionably light, 
and hence arises that detergent effect which 
follows after its use: in fact the cutaneous 
glands exude their contents, and it im- 
mediately follows that the perspiratory func- 
tion is performed with unusual energy, so 
M 2 



160 APPENDIX. 

that should the general condition of the in- 
ternal organs be in unison, the effect from 
the bath may naturally be expected to prove 
salutary; it unfortunately, however, happens 
to invalids but too frequently, that the rela- 
tive condition ©f the vital actions, as well 
as that of the skin, and the reciprocal con- 
nection existing between both, are not at 
all times in unison, and if so our expecta-^ 
tion of its good effects must be disappointed. 

In many instances witliin my experience 
in which the Vapour-bath has proved effica- 
cious, recourse had previously been had to 
purgative medicines and depletion as the 
case required ; and had they not been first 
exhibited, the advantage from its use would 
have been suspended or protracted beyond a 
reasonable time : to this last observation may 
also be added, hat regularity, as to tem- 
perance and exercise, has a very considerable 
share in securing the full salutary influence 
of its effects, and also in complaints of the 
visera and head, in gout, rheumatism, and 
many anomalous diseases of an obstinate and 
dangerous character. 

When vapour is once formed, it rushes 



APPENDIX. 161 

M^ith great rapidity through the conducting 
tubes into the bath, and some dexterity and 
proper management are required in its ap- 
plication : to many invalids this excessive 
degree of heat to the surface, applied in an 
incautious manner, produces a sense of 
fullness in the head, feverish heat, and a 
feeling of suffocation, particularly if the 
person at the first moment of entering 
the bath respire the heated air, which should 
be carefully avoided by inhaling the air of 
the apartment, until the external surface 
of the body has attained a certain degree of 
heat, and then by gradually inhaling the 
vapour within the bath, and from time to 
time alternating it with the air external to 
the bath, until a certain degree of unison 
is found to exist between the cutaneous 
surface and the air cells of the lungs, in 
which case the bath imparts its entire 
influence. 

That consent of parts existing in the 
animal economy between the functions of 
the external surface of the body, the inter- 
nal surface of the lungs, and the healthy 
condition of the stomach, is of essential 



J 62 



APPENDIX. 



moment in our views of the effects to be 
derived from the Vapour-bath, and should 
enter into our consideration with respect to 
what may be promised from its application 
in disease, whether affecting the human 
frame in general, or those particular organs^ 
as few or no complaints can exist in any one, 
independent of some derangement in a lesser 
or greater degree in the others. The sen- 
sations appertaining to the stomach, and 
the different portions of the alimentary 
canal, are more frequently indicated by a 
particular action on the surface than can 
be ascertained from the symptoms in the 
parts immediately concerned. Hence, in 
inflamation, symptomatic of gout, rheuma- 
tism, erysipilas, some species of opthalmia, 
and many chronic affections of the nervous 
and muscular system, were we not to trace 
their source from an attention to their real 
origin, we, in the application of active reme- 
dies, like to that under consideration, must 
be often guilty of dangerous error. 

In some particular cases, it may be ad- 
visable to go directly from the warm fluid- 
bath into the Vapour-bath, as a gradual 



APPENDTX. 163 

means of obtaining the powerful influence 
of the latter, and thus avoiding any danger 
that could arise from the sudden exposure 
of the body to a medium of so high a tem- 
perature. In cases where a determination 
of fluids is felt in any principal organ of 
life upon using a Vapour-bath, this pre- 
cautionary measure will be found of practical 
utility. 

The regular or occasional use of the 
Warm-bath is in many instances resorted 
to by persons advanced in years, as a 
means of prolonging life, but for the at- 
tainment of that object, the Vapour-bath, 
under judicious direction, is frequently pro- 
ductive of better and more advantageous 
effects than can arise from the Fluid-bath; 
and if its nature had been well understood 
during the days of Voltaire and Franklin, 
who used the latter so successfully, they 
might possibly have engaged even a more 
protracted existence, — particularly when we 
reason from the fact, as first proved by the 
indefatigable Lavosier, and subsequently by 
Seguin, that the exudation from the surface 
while immersed in a Warm-bath, is one third 



164 APPENDIX. 

less than what takes place in a given time 
tinder the usual circumstances of life, where 
the heat of the atmosphere is not beyond 
the ordinary standard, owing to the density 
of the medium ; but the case is very dif- 
ferent indeed where the medium of the 
Yapour-bath is so much more rare, and 
where the existing heat stimulates in a so 
much greater a degree, at once accelerating 
the circulation and stimulating the exhalents 
to a healthy action, — and thus 

" Relax the stubborn pores, that full and free 
" The evaporation through the softened skin 
" May bear proportion to the swelling blood." 

In submitting to friction and shampooing, 
patients cannot be too circumspect, as a 
very direct mischief frequently arises from 
an injudicious and too frequent use of this 
means of relief, — indeed there are cases in 
which, from the rude and severe manner 
it has been exercised, by persons ignorant 
as to the ultimate effect, lameness, ten- 
derness and irritation have subsequently ex- 
isted in the parts for a length of time. 

In all eases, therefore, the most gentle 
process should be commenced with, and a 



APPENDIX. 165 

cautious mode of proceeding attended to 
throughout, avoiding all violent friction 
and extension of the liguments and ten- 
dons, as it is generally known to the pro- 
fession, an injury done to either the one 
or the other, is recovered from with diffi- 
culty, and generally in the most tedious 
manner. 

As connected with this subject, the use of 
vital and other factitious airs should be ad- 
verted to, and in conjunction with the aid 
derivable from the Vapour-bath, much 
direct assistance may be promised from a 
judicious administration of this remedy in 
a great variety of diseases. 

From the persevering industry of Dr. 
Thornton, of London, this remedy is now 
rendered more safe and efficacious, and the 
most satisfactory and well authenticated 
results are now before the public. 



FINIS. 



Printed by W. Newjon, Cannon-Row, Westminster.